John Winthrop, Oliver Cromwell, and the Land of Promise

Study Guide

 

Introduction

 

This study guide is designed to enhance students’ mastery of key content and skills in social studies, language arts, and other disciplines through examination of the Puritans and their legacy.  It is intended to be used in conjunction with John Winthrop, Oliver Cromwell, and the Land of Promise by Sibert Award-winning author Marc Aronson, along with other materials.  The lessons will compliment curriculum in the social studies, particularly early colonial Anglo-American history (including key figures in the history of religious toleration, Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams) and the rise of representative institutions.  Each lesson is designed with multiple objectives in mind, to make the most efficient use of teachers’ time.

The guide consists of four lesson plans drawn from topics investigated in John Winthrop, Oliver Cromwell, and the Land of Promise:

·        America, Land of Promise

·        Anne Hutchinson’s Trial:  Conscience in Conflict

·        Roger Williams and John Winthrop

 

 

Within each lesson plan you will find all or most of the following information:

·        Synopsis of lesson

·        National curriculum standards met by this lesson (based on Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning standards and benchmarks,  www.mcrel.org)

·        Time required

·        Materials needed

·        The lesson (with lesson-starter and lesson procedures)

·        Additional resources

·        Interdisciplinary activities

 

Although the study guide is designed so that the four lesson plans provide an integrated course of studies, it is not expected that students will complete all the listed activities.  Teachers may assign selected activities to their classes, allow students to choose an activity for themselves, or set up independent learning centers with the material needed for suggested activities.  Also, teachers may wish to give students the opportunity to earn extra credit by completing some activities as independent work.  Recognizing the time and accountability constraints facing classroom teachers, we encourage you to select and adapt the John Winthrop, Oliver Cromwell, and the Land of Promise activities that best meet your students’ needs and abilities, curriculum requirements, and your teaching style. 

 

This study guide was written by Jean M. West, an education consultant in Port Orange, Florida.


I. Land of Promise

 

Synopsis

 

This lesson examines the origins, elements, and evolution of the theme “America, the Land of Promise.”  One of the central questions which link the Puritan experience on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean is “Where could a searching soul find true Heaven on earth?”  Students will investigate how the Puritan’s view that they were the chosen people, on a mission of destiny, striving for perfection in the Promised Land, judged by man and God has evolved over time.  They will also consider the legacy of “America, the Land of Promise,” in the contemporary view Americans have of themselves and the United States.  Teachers may choose to use this lesson as a thematic framework for a survey course of American history, either completing all the activities as the initial unit of the school year, or introducing the theme and then returning to it as a touchstone throughout the academic year.  This lesson is designed to be used in conjunction with John Winthrop, Oliver Cromwell, and the Land of Promise.  The lesson is most appropriate for high school students, grades 9-12.

 

National Curriculum Standards

 

Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning has created standards and benchmarks for language arts, math, science, geography, economics, and history. 

This lesson meets Level IV (Grades 9-12) standards and benchmarks for:

United States History Standard (3rd Ed.) for Era 2 – Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763) including benchmarks:

3.  Understands characteristics of religious development in colonial America (e.g., the

      presence of diverse religious groups and their contributions to religious freedom;

the political and religious influence of the Great Awakening; the major tenets of

Puritanism and its legacy in American society; the dissension of Anne Hutchinson

and Roger Williams, and Puritan objections to their ideas and behavior)

4.   Understands the characteristics of the social structure of colonial America (e.g.,

the property rights of single, married, and widowed women; public education in

the New England colonies and how it differed from the southern colonies,

different patterns of family life; different ideas among diverse religious groups,

social classes, and cultures; different roles and status of men and women)

5.  Understands the similarities and differences in colonial concepts of community

(e.g., Puritan’s covenant community, Chesapeake colonial emphasis on

individualism)

 

Historical Understanding (3rd Ed.) Standard 2:  Understands the historical perspective including benchmarks:

1.  Analyzes the values held by specific people who influenced history and the role

their values played in influencing history

2.  Analyzes the influences specific ideas and beliefs had on a period of history and

specifies how events might have been different in the absence of those ideas and

beliefs

 

Language Arts (4th Ed.) Standard 4:  Gathers and uses information for research purposes including benchmarks:

3.   Uses a variety of primary sources to gather information for research topics

4.   Uses a variety of criteria to evaluate the validity and reliability of primary and

secondary source information (e.g., the motives, credibility, and perspectives of

the author; date of publication; use of logic, propaganda, bias, and language;

comprehensiveness of evidence)

 

Time Required

 

This lesson will probably take three to five class periods if taught as a complete unit, depending on the amount of reading and written work assigned outside of class.

 

Materials Needed

     

      John Winthrop, Oliver Cromwell, and the Land of Promise

            Land of Promise Worksheet

 

The Lesson

 

Lesson-Starter

1.      Ask students to examine the photographs and captions for John Winthrop’s home at Groton Manor, Suffolk, England on p. 25 and a reproduction of John Endicott’s Puritan-era home in Salem on p. 44. 

2.      Invite them to make comparisons between the two structures and to hypothesize why John Winthrop would have left his English manor to pioneer a new life in the wilderness of the New World. 

 

Procedures

1.      Direct the class to read “Why This Book,” pp. XIII-XIV; “Chapter Two—John Winthrop,” pp. 23-34; “Chapter Three—Land of Promise,” pp. 35-49; and “Epilogue,” pp. 167-172.  Ask students to take notes of examples of Puritan beliefs in the left column of the Land of Promise Worksheet at the end of this lesson.

 

2.      Explain to students that they will be tracing the Puritan belief in America as a Land of Promise by selecting and investigating one later document in U.S. history or literature which touches on the theme.  Students may work as individuals or in teams of two to trace how the theme has evolved or transformed in these writings.  They will take notes in the right hand column of the worksheet and answer the questions at the end.  Possible documents/books they might look at include: 

·        Declaration of Independence (1776)

·        Hector St. John de Crevecoeur’s Letters from An American Farmer, third essay, “What then is the American, this new man?” (1782)

·        Samuel Stennett’s hymn “Bound for the Promised Land” (1787)

·        James Madison, The Federalist Papers, No.14 (1787)

·        Thomas Jefferson, letter to James Madison calling farmers the “chosen of God,” (1787) and/or First Inaugural Address (1801)

·        James Madison, First Inaugural Address (1809)

·        Francis Scott Key, lyrics to all four stanzas, “The Star Spangled Banner” (1814)

·        Washington Irving, beginning paragraphs of “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow” (1820)

·        James Fennimore Cooper, “The Prairie,” Chapter I (1827)

·        Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, Vol. I, “Origin of the Anglo-Americans” (1835)

·        Andrew Jackson’s farewell address (1837)

·        Ralph Waldo Emerson’s oration “On the American Scholar” (1837)

·        John O’Sullivan’s article on Manifest Destiny, “The Great Nation of Futurity” (1839)

·        The conclusion of Henry David Thoreau’s Walking (1851)

·        Walt Whitman’s collection of poems, Leaves of Grass, including “I Hear America Singing,” “American Feuillage,” “One Song, America, Before I Go,” and “Pioneers! O Pioneers!” (first published,1851; full edition 1900)

·        Abraham Lincoln’s concluding paragraphs of his Annual Address to Congress (1862), Gettysburg Address (1863), and/or Second Inaugural Address (1865)

·        Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze’s mural, Westward the Course of Empire Takes its Way (1861) and Albert Bierstadt’s painting, Discovery of the Hudson River (1874); both located in the U.S. Capitol building

·        Emma Lazarus’ “The New Colossus” poem, placed on the Statue of Liberty (1883)

·        Frederick Jackson Turner’s thesis, “The Frontier in American History” (1893)

·        Theodore Roosevelt, Inaugural Address (1905)

·        Mary Antin’s The Promised Land (1912)

·        Carl Sandburg’s poems including “Smoke and Steel,” and “The Sins of Kalamazoo” (1922)

·        The conclusion of F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby (1925)

·        Langston Hughes’ poems “I, Too, Sing America” (1925) and “Let America Be America Again” (1938)

·        Stephen Vincent Benét’s short story, “The Devil and Daniel Webster” (1936)

·        John Steinbeck’s Grapes of Wrath (1939)

·        Franklin D. Roosevelt’s “Four Freedoms” State of the Union address to Congress (1941)

·        Allen Ginsberg’s poems “A Supermarket in California” (1955) and “Crossing Nation” (1968)

·        Leonard Bernstein/Stephen Sondheim’s song “America” from the musical West Side Story (1956)

·        Claude Brown’s Manchild in the Promised Land, 1965

·        Martin Luther King’s speech “The American Dream”(1961) or his collections of sermons, Strength to Love (1963), or his final speech in Memphis (1968)

·        Roderick Nash’s “The Cultural Significance of the American Wilderness” (1969)

·        The final four paragraphs of Ronald Reagan’s farewell address (1989)

·        Wallace Stegner’s “Variations on a Theme by Crevecoeur” in Where the Bluebird Sings to the Lemonade Springs (1992)

·        George W. Bush, Remarks at the National Cathedral (September 14, 2001)

 

 

3.   Collect the worksheets and make a notation of the works studied for reference.  The teacher should decide whether to have students share their findings in class all at once or whether they wish students to present their findings during the course of the school year.  Return worksheets to students so they may refer to them in their discussion, according to the preferred schedule.  If students will need to refer to their worksheets several months after the initial activity, provide them the worksheet several days in advance so they can refresh their memory about the work they have examined. Encourage students to relate the work they have examined to the original Puritan “Land of Promise” as well as later interpretations presented by other students.

 


Assessment

 

1.      The culminating activity will be for students to write a paper tracing the evolution of the concept of “America, the Promised Land” from Puritan settlement to the present or to write an essay on the state of “America, the Promised Land” today.  This paper should be assigned after all the students have had the opportunity to hear the ideas articulated over the course of U.S. history by a wide range of American writers and observers.

2.      The students’ papers may be evaluated on a twenty-point scale (which may be multiplied by five to convert to 100-point scale or for conversion to letter grades) using the following rubric:

 

 

 

 

Excellent

 

Good

 

Fair

 

Not

Satisfactory

 

No

Work

Historical Comprehension

 

10 points

(10) Written assignment demonstrates excellent historical

·         analysis of information

·         command of facts

·         synthesis of information

·         interpretation

(9-8) Written assignment demonstrates good historical

·         analysis of information

·         command of facts

·         synthesis of information

·         interpretation

(7-6) Written assignment shows fair historical

·         analysis of information

·         command of facts

·         synthesis of information

·         interpretation

(5-1) Written assignment shows little historical

·         analysis of information

·         command of facts

·         synthesis of information

·        interpretation

  0

Technical Writing Skills

 

10 points

(10) Written assignment shows excellent

·         compositional structure

·         sentence structure and variety

·         vocabulary use

·         grammar, spelling, punctuation

(9-8) Written assignment shows good

·         compositional structure

·         sentence structure and variety

·         vocabulary use

·         grammar, spelling, punctuation

(7-6) Written assignment shows adequate

·         compositional structure

·         sentence structure and variety

·         vocabulary use

·         grammar, spelling, punctuation

(5-1) Written assignment shows inadequate

·         compositional structure

·         sentence structure and variety

·         vocabulary use

·         grammar, spelling, punctuation

0

 

Additional Resources

 

Books

Heimert, Alan and Andrew Delbanco, eds., The Puritans in America:  A Narrative Anthology. (Cambridge, MA:  Harvard University Press, 1985).

Kishlansky, Mark.  A Monarchy Transformed:  Britain 1603-1714. (London and New York:  Penguin, 1997). 

Morgan, Edmund Sears.  The Puritan Dilemma:  The Story of John Winthrop.  (Boston:  Little, Brown, 1958).

 

Internet Resources

The Massachusetts Historical Society: Winthrop Papers Project, http://www.millersv.edu/~winthrop/

Reuben, Paul P. "Chapter 1: Early American Literature to1700 - John Winthrop." PAL: Perspectives in American Literature- A Research and Reference Guide. Site hosted by California State University-Stanislaus. http://www.csustan.edu/english/reuben/pal/chap1/winthrop.html

The Winthrop Society: Descendants of the Great Migration, http://www.winthropsociety.org/

The Winthrop Fleet of 1630 by Charles Banks, transcription, http://www.usigs.org/library/books/ma/WinthropFleet/WinthropFleet1630.html

Bartleby.com has presidential inaugural addresses and other works produced in the ongoing political debate about the United States at www.bartleby.com

The University of Virginia’s Electronic Texts Center, English Online, provides                   access to thousands of books, essays, and poems at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/eng-on.html

 

Interdisciplinary Activities

 

Music

The themes of America as a land of promise and Americans as a chosen people have inspired composers and lyricists since the beginning of the nation. Students may wish to examine the treatment of these themes in music.  Some may prefer to trace it over time by collecting a dozen or more examples.  Others may wish to focus on a single work (such as My Country ‘Tis of Thee, lyrics by Samuel F. Smith; The Battle Hymn of the Republic, lyrics by Julia Ward Howe; America, the Beautiful by Katherine Lee Bates; Over There by George M. Cohan; God Bless America by Irving Berlin; This Land is Your Land, by Woody Guthrie; America by Neil Diamond; Born in the U.S.A. by Bruce Springsteen; or God Bless the U.S.A. by Lee Greenwood) or an individual composer (such as Aaron Copland who produced Fanfare for the Common Man, Lincoln Portrait, and Appalachian Spring).

 

Art/Graphic Design

The currency and bills of the United States try to incorporate through words and images the theme of America as a land of promise and Americans as a chosen people.  Ask students to identify and analyze the images and words on the back of the $1 bill.  (A Latin teacher may collaborate to help with the translation.)  Redesign the back with images that might better capture the imagination of Americans today. 

 

Media/Communications

a) Contemporary pop culture continues to be infused with the theme of America as a land of promise and Americans as a chosen people.  Students may wish to collect examples from sports and entertainment, or may wish to keep a log of examples that are incorporated in television advertising over the course of several hours during a weekend.  Ask students to analyze why these themes continue to appeal to audiences and consumers far removed from the Puritans and John Winthrop.

b) Rhett Butler, in the classic film Gone with the Wind, tells Scarlett O’Hara, “You get your strength from this red earth of Tara, Scarlett. You're a part of it. It's a part of you.”  American film has returned again and again to the American land and landscape for inspiration and to explore the relationship of the American people and the land, from Pare Lorentz’s The Plow that Broke the Plains to John Ford’s Grapes of Wrath or Kevin Costner’s Dances with Wolves.  Ask students to create a select list of ten films that explore this relationship.  In addition to creating the list, the student should annotate each film with a paragraph explaining how the film-maker portrayed and explored the relationship between the American land and its people. 

 

 

 


Land of Promise Worksheet

Student Name ___________________________________________________________

Name of work studied _____________________________________________________

Beliefs

Puritan Examples

My Selection’s Examples

 

A chosen people

 

 

 

 

 

A mission of destiny

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Striving for perfection

 

 

 

 

 

 

Judged by other humans and the Deity

 

 

 

 

 

A promised land

 

 

 

 

 

Questions

a)  How does your selection relate to the Puritan themes?

 

 

 

b)  Are there variations, evolutions, or transformational changes to the Puritan theme(s) in the selection you examined?  If so, explain what they are.


II. Anne Hutchinson’s Trial:  Conscience in Conflict

 

Synopsis

 

Anne Hutchinson tested how the Puritans would deal with challenges of conscience.  Individual revelation might strengthen faith and assist the community to be God’s chosen or it could undermine God’s laws and threaten the common good.  This lesson is designed so students can use material in John Winthrop, Oliver Cromwell, and the Land of Promise to learn the story of Anne Hutchinson, her trial, and punishment.  The lesson is most appropriate for high school students, grades 9-12.

National Curriculum Standards

 

Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning has created standards and benchmarks for language arts, math, science, geography, economics, and history. 

This lesson meets Level IV (Grades 9-12) standards and benchmarks for:

United States History Standard (3rd Ed.) for Era 2 – Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763) including benchmarks:

2.  Understands how gender, property ownership, religion, and legal status affected

political rights (e.g., that women were not allowed to vote even if they held

property and met religious requirements)

3.  Understands characteristics of religious development in colonial America (e.g., the

      presence of diverse religious groups and their contributions to religious freedom;

the political and religious influence of the Great Awakening; the major tenets of

Puritanism and its legacy in American society; the dissension of Anne Hutchinson

and Roger Williams, and Puritan objections to their ideas and behavior)

4.   Understands the characteristics of the social structure of colonial America (e.g.,

the property rights of single, married, and widowed women; public education in

the New England colonies and how it differed from the southern colonies,

different patterns of family life; different ideas among diverse religious groups,

social classes, and cultures; different roles and status of men and women)

5.  Understands the similarities and differences in colonial concepts of community

(e.g., Puritan’s covenant community, Chesapeake colonial emphasis on

individualism)

 

Historical Understanding (3rd Ed.) Standard 2:  Understands the historical perspective including benchmarks:

1.  Analyzes the values held by specific people who influenced history and the role

their values played in influencing history

2.  Analyzes the influences specific ideas and beliefs had on a period of history and

specifies how events might have been different in the absence of those ideas and

beliefs

 

 

Time Required

 

This lesson will probably take one class period, depending on the amount of reading and written work assigned outside of class.

 

Materials Needed

 

John Winthrop, Oliver Cromwell, and the Land of Promise

 

The Lesson

 

Lesson-Starter

 

1.      Ask students to define “conscience” in their own words.  Record ideas on the chalkboard, a flipchart or an overhead transparency.  Develop a definition which reaches class consensus for “conscience.”

2.      Direct the class to read the exchange between John Winthrop and Anne Hutchinson on page 68 and the paragraph discussing the way the word “conscience” was used in the 17th century. 

3.      Ask students to write a journal entry or position paper clarifying for themselves their own answers to the key questions raised in the trial:

·        What is conscience?

·        Who should determine what the universal and perfect laws of God are – the individual, the godly community, or the king?

·        Can order survive if every individual creates their own higher law?

 

Procedures

 

1.      Ask students to read “Chapter Five, Spirit” pp. 63-74.   If the school or library has a copy of the 1965 Profiles in Courage 50-minute television dramatization of Anne Hutchinson’s life and trial featuring Wendy Hiller, the teacher may wish to show the film to the class. For students with higher interest and computer access, the full 1637 transcript of “The Examination of Mrs. Anne Hutchinson at the Court at Newton” is available at a number of sites on the Internet including: http://personal.pitnet.net/primarysources/hutchinson.html.  A rebuttal to Anne Hutchinson’s religious theories written by Thomas Welde in 1644 can be found at http://www.piney.com/ColAnnHutch.html.

2.      As they read the chapter, students should answer the following questions:

a. What was the Puritans’ attitude towards the role of women in society and religion?  (Additional information about Puritan and 17th century perceptions of women are discussed on pp. 10, 20, 28-30, 59, 108, 130, 149-150, and 156.)

b. What did the Puritans believe about the responsibilities they were supposed to undertake as part of their covenant with God?

c. How did the Puritans feel about the religious persecution they had experienced at the hands of the Stuart kings? (Additional material is located on pp. 11-18.)

d. What kind of threat(s) did Anne Hutchinson pose to the Puritan leadership?  Consider not only theology and political order, but also challenging notions about the proper role of women.  

e. How did the Puritans feelings about women, covenants, and religious persecution come together during the trial of Anne Hutchinson?  (Additional discussion is located on pp. 39-41, 48-49, 156-159.)

3.      Brainstorm a list of topics that today are characterized as “matters of conscience.”  Ask students to consider those occasions when there is conflict between competing matters of conscience, such as between freedom of religion and health (Christian Scientists and other religious groups who refuse blood transfusions or inoculations); freedom of religion and security (Muslim women who do not want to remove the hijab or veil for drivers’ license photographs or pre-flight boarding); freedom of the press and security (journalists who publish or broadcast information that may put soldiers or civilians at risk); public servants who refuse orders (hospital workers who will not leave their family during a hurricane, or police officers who will not arrest the homeless, or soldiers who refuse to take anthrax vaccine.) Ask the class which topics meet the threshold of their consensus definition of “conscience.”  

 

Assessment

 

1.      Ask each student to write a position paper or opinion essay answering the question: Is the conflict between individual conscience and the security of society as irresolvable today as it was in 1637? 

2.      The students’ papers may be evaluated on a twenty-point scale (which may be multiplied by five to convert to 100-point scale or for conversion to letter grades) using the following rubric:

 

 

 

Excellent

 

Good

 

Fair

 

Not

Satisfactory

 

No

Work

Historical Comprehension

 

10 points

(10) Written assignment demonstrates excellent historical

·         analysis of information

·         command of facts

·         synthesis of information

·         interpretation

(9-8) Written assignment demonstrates good historical

·         analysis of information

·         command of facts

·         synthesis of information

·         interpretation

(7-6) Written assignment shows fair historical

·         analysis of information

·         command of facts

·         synthesis of information

·         interpretation

(5-1) Written assignment shows little historical

·         analysis of information

·         command of facts

·         synthesis of information

·        interpretation

  0

Technical Writing Skills

 

10 points

(10) Written assignment shows excellent

·         compositional structure

·         sentence structure and variety

·         vocabulary use

·         grammar, spelling, punctuation

(9-8) Written assignment shows good

·         compositional structure

·         sentence structure and variety

·         vocabulary use

·         grammar, spelling, punctuation

(7-6) Written assignment shows adequate

·         compositional structure

·         sentence structure and variety

·         vocabulary use

·         grammar, spelling, punctuation

(5-1) Written assignment shows inadequate

·         compositional structure

·         sentence structure and variety

·         vocabulary use

·         grammar, spelling, punctuation

0

 


Additional Resources

 

Books

Delbanco, Andrew.  The Puritan Ordeal.  (Cambridge, MA:  Harvard University Press, 1989).

Hall David.  Worlds of Wonder, Days of Judgment:  Popular Religious Belief in Early New England. (New York:  Knopf, 1989).

Hall, David D., ed.  The Antinomian Controversy, 1636-1638:  A Documentary History.  (Durham, NC:  Duke University Press, 1990). 

Kamensky, Jane.  Governing the Tongue:  The Politics of Speech in Early New England.  (New York:  Oxford University Press, 1997). 

LaPlante, Eve.  American Jezebel:  The Uncommon Life of Anne Hutchinson, the Woman who Defied the Puritans.  (San Francisco, CA: HarperSanFrancisco, 2004).

Winship, Michael P.  Making Heretics:  Militant Protestantism and Free Grace in Massachusetts, 1636-1641.  (Princeton, NJ:  Princeton University Press, 2002).

 

Internet Resources

The Anne Hutchinson Website http://www.annehutchinson.com/Default.htm

The Examination of Mrs Anne Hutchinson at the Court at Newton, 1637 http://personal.pitnet.net/primarysources/hutchinson.html

17th Century Colonial New England, http://www.17thc.us/

The Heresies of Anne Hutchinson and Her Followers, Thomas Welde, 1644 http://www.piney.com/ColAnnHutch.html

      Anne Hutchinson: Notable Women Ancestors http://rootsweb.com/~nwa/ah.html

Interdisciplinary Activities

 

Art 

Students may wish to design a more contemporary monument than the one erected in 1922 in front of the State House on Boston Commons honoring Anne Hutchinson which can be viewed at http://rootsweb.com/~nwa/ah.html.  If students wish to make their art representational, rather than abstract, they should conduct research about accurate costumes of the era since the typical black and white Thanksgiving/stereotypical Puritan dress is not consistent with Stuart era clothing.  Or, they may wish to create a full scale cartoon for a mural that represents key events in the history of religious freedom in America. 

 

 

U.S. Government or History

Students may wish to examine other notable trials during the colonial era including the trial of Mary Dyer, Marmaduke Stevenson, William Robinson, John Wheelwright, the Salem Witch Trials and the John Peter Zenger trial.  Or, they may wish to examine other key trials in U.S. history, such as those of Gabriel Prosser, Denmark Vesey, Nat Turner, John Brown, Susan B. Anthony, John Scopes, Sacco and Vanzetti, the Scottsboro Boys, or Julius and Ethel Rosenberg.  Marc Aronson’s book, Witch-Hunt:  Mysteries of the Salem Witch Trials, examines the witch trials in detail, and includes companion lessons at http://www.marcaronson.com/index.html.  Websites with background history and documents include Famous Trials, sponsored by the University of Missouri at Kansas City,  http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/ftrials.htm, Death or Liberty maintained by the Library of Virginia at http://www.lva.lib.va.us/whoweare/exhibits/DeathLiberty/ and the companion website for the PBS series Africans in America at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part3/3p2976.html.

 

Language Arts

Anne Bradstreet was America’s first published poet and continues to rank as an outstanding poet of the 17th century, but she was also the wife of the Puritan governor of Massachusetts, Simon Bradstreet.  She balances wit, love, and faith in a manner still appealing to modern readers.  Students may wish to examine selections of her poetry at http://www.annebradstreet.com/anne_bradstreet_poems.htm

 


III. Roger Williams and John Winthrop

 

Synopsis

 

John Winthrop and Roger Williams were products of the same historical forces, yet formed very different opinions about compromise, separation of church and state, Indians’ rights, and freedom of conscience.  Winthrop and Williams challenge our ideas of extremism, compromise, friendship and duty.  This lesson is designed so students can use material in John Winthrop, Oliver Cromwell, and the Land of Promise to learn the story of John Winthrop, Roger Williams, and the historic tension between pragmatists and idealists, compromisers and purists, moderates and extremists that is still played out in our lives today.  The lesson is most appropriate for high school students, grades 9-12.

National Curriculum Standards

 

Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning has created standards and benchmarks for language arts, math, science, geography, economics, and history. 

This lesson meets Level IV (Grades 9-12) standards and benchmarks for:

United States History Standard (3rd Ed.) Era 2 – Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763)

Standard 3 benchmarks:

1.  Understands social and economic characteristics of European colonization in the

     17th and 18th centuries (e.g., changing immigration and settlement patterns of

Puritans, Quakers, Germans, and Scots-Irish; the slave trade and chattel slavery in the Spanish, English, and French Caribbean, Louisiana, the Dutch West Indies and Chesapeake)

3.   Understands the nature of the interaction between Native Americans and various

settlers (e.g., Native American involvement in the European wars for control   between 1675 and 1763, how Native American societies responded to European land hunger and expansion)

 

Standard 4 benchmarks:

2.  Understands how gender, property ownership, religion, and legal status affected

political rights (e.g., that women were not allowed to vote even if they held

property and met religious requirements)

3.  Understands characteristics of religious development in colonial America (e.g., the

      presence of diverse religious groups and their contributions to religious freedom;

the political and religious influence of the Great Awakening; the major tenets of

Puritanism and its legacy in American society; the dissension of Anne Hutchinson

and Roger Williams, and Puritan objections to their ideas and behavior)

 

Historical Understanding (3rd Ed.) Standard 2:  Understands the historical perspective including benchmarks:

1.  Analyzes the values held by specific people who influenced history and the role

their values played in influencing history

 2.  Analyzes the influences specific ideas and beliefs had on a period of history and

specifies how events might have been different in the absence of those ideas and

beliefs

       5.  Understands that the consequences of human intentions are influenced by the

means of carrying them out

      13. Evaluates the validity and credibility of different historical interpretations

 

Time Required

 

This lesson will probably take one class period, depending on the amount of reading and written work assign assigned outside of class.

 

Materials Needed

 

      John Winthrop, Oliver Cromwell, and the Land of Promise

      U.S. history textbook

      John Winthrop-Roger Williams Venn Diagram Worksheet

 

The Lesson

 

Lesson-Starter

1.      Ask students to read what their textbook has to say about the Puritans and John Winthrop, as well as Roger Williams. Ask students if the textbook writers seemed to be more sympathetic towards the Puritans or Williams or if the presentation is even-handed.  If there seems to be bias towards one side or the other, ask students to suggest reasons why this might be the case.

2.      Read the following sentence from p. 55 aloud and poll students whether they think this was true of the Puritans or Roger Williams.  “Keeping his “soul undefiled,” never having to “act with a doubting conscience,” were they only things that mattered.” Inform students that this was written about Roger Williams. 

3.      Explain that John Winthrop and Roger Williams had very different ideas about compromise, separation of church and state, Indians’ rights, and freedom of conscience.  They also had very different temperaments.  Winthrop was a man who tried to govern pragmatically, making compromises when necessary; Williams was a zealot who tolerated no “middle walking.”  Ask students what is meant by the expression, “One man’s freedom fighter is another man’s terrorist.”

      Ask to brainstorm other examples of people who are considered to be 

a) extremists, zealots, purists, idealists, principled

b) moderates, pragmatists, compromisers, wheeler-dealers

If the students have difficulty, suggest pairs such as Cromwell and the Levellers; James Madison and George Mason; John Brown and Abraham Lincoln; Booker T. Washington and Marcus Garvey; Malcolm X and Martin Luther King, Jr.; Greenpeace and the Sierra Club; P.E.T.A. (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) and the Humane Society of the United States.

 

       

 

Procedures

 

1.  Direct students to read John Winthrop, Oliver Cromwell, and the Land of Promise, focusing on “Why This Book,” pp. XIII-XIV; ‘A Great Marvel,” on Winthrop’s assumption of leadership, pp. 41-49; “Chapter Four: Conscience,” pp. 50-62; Winthrop’s re-election and conduct of Anne Hutchinson’s trial, pp. 67-74; “Chapter Six: War,” pp. 75-80; and Cromwell as moderate, p. 146.

2.   Ask students take notes about John Winthrop and Roger Williams and the colonies they created, noting the similarities and differences of these two men who were products of the same historical forces.  Students may use the Venn Diagram Worksheet at the end of this lesson to help structure their note-taking.

 

 

Assessment

 

1.  As a culminating activity, students will select one of the following written assignments:

      a. Write a paper comparing and contrasting Winthrop and Williams and the colonies they created.

      b. Write a paper comparing and contrasting a different pairing of idealists and compromisers, either from history or current events.

      c. Write an opinion paper about which leader, Winthrop or Williams, they personally find most sympathetic, based on their beliefs and deeds.

 

2.   The students’ papers may be evaluated on a twenty-point scale (which may be multiplied by five to convert to 100-point scale or for conversion to letter grades) using the following rubric:


 

 

 

Excellent

 

Good

 

Fair

 

Not

Satisfactory

 

No

Work

Historical Comprehension

 

10 points

(10) Written assignment demonstrates excellent

·         analysis of information about both historical figures

·         command of facts

·         comparison and contrast of details

·         assessment of experiences as distinct or common or

formulation of opinion

(9-8) Written assignment demonstrates good

·         analysis of information from both historical figures

·         command of facts

·         general comparison and contrasts

·        assessment of experiences as distinct or common or

formulation of opinion

(7-6) Written assignment shows fair

·         analysis of information from both historical figures

·         command of facts

·         little relationship between items compared or contrasted

·        incomplete assessment of experiences as distinct or common or formulation of opinion

(5-1) Written assignment shows little

·         analysis of information, may only refer to one historical figure

·         command of facts

·         no relationship between items to be compared and contrasted

·        no assessment of experiences as distinct or common or formulation of opinion

  0

Technical Writing Skills

 

10 points

(10) Written assignment shows excellent

·         compositional structure

·         sentence structure and variety

·         vocabulary use

·         grammar, spelling, punctuation

(9-8) Written assignment shows good

·         compositional structure

·         sentence structure and variety

·         vocabulary use

·         grammar, spelling, punctuation

(7-6) Written assignment shows adequate

·         compositional structure

·         sentence structure and variety

·         vocabulary use

·         grammar, spelling, punctuation

(5-1) Written assignment shows inadequate

·         compositional structure

·         sentence structure and variety

·         vocabulary use

·         grammar, spelling, punctuation

0

 

 

Additional Resources

 

Books

Axtell, James.  Natives and Newcomers:  The Cultural Origins of North America (New York:  Oxford University Press, 2001).

Bremer, Francis J.  The Puritan Experiment:  New England Society from Bradford to Edwards.  (New York:  St. Martin’s, 1976; rev. ed., Hanover, NH:  University Press of New England, 1995).

Cave, Albert A.  The Pequot War.  (Amherst, MA:  University of Massachusetts, 1996).

Delbanco, Andrew.  The Puritan Ordeal.  (Cambridge, MA:  Harvard University Press, 1989).

Gaustad, Edwin S.  Liberty of Conscience:  Roger Williams in America.  (Grand Rapids, MI:  Eerdmans, 1991).

Hall, David D., ed.  The Antinomian Controversy, 1636-1638:  A Documentary History.  (Durham, NC:  Duke University Press, 1990). 

Heimert, Alan and Andrew Delbanco, eds., The Puritans in America:  A Narrative Anthology. (Cambridge, MA:  Harvard University Press, 1985).

Kupperman, Karen Ordahl.  Indians & English:  Facing Off in Early America.  (Ithaca, NY:  Cornell University Press, 2000).

Morgan, Edmund Sears.  The Puritan Dilemma:  The Story of John Winthrop.  (Boston:  Little, Brown, 1958).

Winship, Michael P.  Making Heretics:  Militant Protestantism and Free Grace in Massachusetts, 1636-1641.  (Princeton, NJ:  Princeton University Press, 2002).

 

Internet Resources

The Massachusetts Historical Society: Winthrop Papers Project, http://www.millersv.edu/~winthrop/

 

Reuben, Paul P. "Chapter 1: Early American Literature to1700” PAL: Perspectives in American Literature- A Research and Reference Guide. Site hosted by California State University-Stanislaus.

Roger Williams:  http://www.csustan.edu/english/reuben/pal/chap1/williams.html

John Winthrop: http://www.csustan.edu/english/reuben/pal/chap1/winthrop.html

 

The Winthrop Society: Descendants of the Great Migration, http://www.winthropsociety.org/

The Winthrop Fleet of 1630 by Charles Banks, transcription, http://www.usigs.org/library/books/ma/WinthropFleet/WinthropFleet1630.html

   

      Roger Williams, “A Plea for Religious Liberty,”

      http://www.constitution.org/bcp/religlib.htm and “The Bloody Tenet of Persecution,” 

      http://www.reformedreader.org/rbb/williams/btp.htm

 

     Exemplar of Liberty:  Native America and the Evolution of Democracy, by Donald 

     Grinde and Bruce Johansen, Chapter 5 “Errand in the Wilderness: Roger Williams and  

     Soul Liberty” http://www.ratical.org/many_worlds/6Nations/EoL/chp5.html

      Roger Williams Family Association Resource list

      http://www.rogerwilliams.org/resources.htm

 

      Roger Williams National Memorial Park

      http://www.nps.gov/rowi/index.htm

Interdisciplinary Activities

 

Language Arts

John Winthrop and Roger Williams were both literate, well-read men, and they were both letter-writers. Modern historians lament the destruction of many primary sources and historical sites associated with Roger Williams, in particular.  Based on historical research, create a series of at least two exchanges (four letters) between the two men, incorporating their differences of opinion but also reflecting their faith and friendship.

 

Art/Graphic Design

In 1936, the U.S. Post Office issued a stamp for the Rhode Island Tercentary featuring Roger Williams (http://www.rogerwilliams.org/stamp.htm ) as depicted in the Franklin Simmons statue donated to the National Statuary Hall in the U.S. Capitol Building in 1872 (http://www.aoc.gov/cc/art/nsh/williams.htm ).  Since the exact date of Roger William’s birth is unknown, but the 400th anniversary of his birth is believed to have recently passed, create a stamp honoring Roger Williams which would help modern Americans appreciate his contribution to U.S. history.

 

Comparative Religions

Students may examine in depth the differences in the 17th-19th centuries between the Puritans and one or more of their contemporaries: the Pilgrims (Separatists), Baptists, Anabaptists, or Quakers.  Alternately, they might wish to investigate the early American experience of religious groups in other colonies such as Maryland’s Catholics, Rhode Island’s Jews and Pennsylvania’s Quakers.  

Government

Study the series of Supreme Court decisions involving the First Amendment religion clauses, both free exercise (Reynolds v. U.S., 1878) and establishment (Minersville v. Gobitis, 1940; West Virginia v. Barnette, 1943; Everson v. Board of Education of Ewing Township, NJ, 1947; or Engel v. Vitale, 1962).

Geography

Create a keyed map or series of maps showing the location of places mentioned in the New World associated with John Winthrop and Roger Williams. 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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Text Box: Roger Williams and Rhode IslandText Box: Both Leaders and Colonies  Text Box: Venn Diagram Worksheet 
John Winthrop and Roger Williams

IV. Democracy’s Debate:  From Rex is Lex to the Levellers

 

Synopsis

 

One of the central questions of the English Civil War was, ‘What should the relationship among rulers, legislators and people be?’  The same question would be the subject of much writing by influential 18th century philosophers such as Locke, Voltaire, and Rousseau.  In 1787, the theories were transformed into a governmental framework during the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia and clarified during the debates over ratification of the Constitution in the series of essays now called the Federalist Papers.  This lesson is designed so students may examine the path from the “divine right of kings” to the “Agreement of the People” in readings from John Winthrop, Oliver Cromwell, and the Land of Promise.  They may add to this base with additional research tracking democracy’s twists and turns to “We, the People” through New England’s Puritan Theocracy, the Glorious Revolution, the Articles of Confederation, the Constitution and the Bill of Rights, and finally, other subsequent amendments to the Constitution that have helped expand equal rights to citizens, while examining remnant inequalities that persist. The culminating activity will be a debate about the merits of compromise as opposed to idealism.  If the U.S. history course is structured chronologically, then the culminating debate may occur towards the end of the school year, rather than in the colonial era.  The lesson is most appropriate for high school students, grades 9-12.

 

National Curriculum Standards

 

Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning has created standards and benchmarks for language arts, math, science, geography, economics, and history. 

This lesson meets Level IV (Grades 9-12) standards and benchmarks for:

United States History Standard (3rd Ed.) Era 2 – Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763), Standard 4 benchmarks:

1.   Understands influences on the development of representative government in  colonial

America (e.g., conflicts between legislative and executive branches in Virginia, New York, and Massachusetts; how different colonies adopted different laws and governmental frameworks; how demography influenced different forms of government in the colonies; the influence of colonial institutions; how an abundance of land, devotion to private property, and a competitive entrepreneurial spirit influenced the idea of participatory government)

 

2.  Understands how gender, property ownership, religion, and legal status affected

     political rights (e.g., that women were not allowed to vote even if they held property

     and met religious requirements)

 

6.  Understands the elements of ethnic, class, and race relations in conflicts between  

backwoodsmen and planters of colonial America (e.g., Bacon's Rebellion, Leisler's Rebellion, the Carolina Regulators and Paxton Boys revolts)

 

Historical Understanding (3rd Ed.) Standard 2:  Understands the historical perspective including benchmarks:

1.  Analyzes the values held by specific people who influenced history and the role

their values played in influencing history

 2.  Analyzes the influences specific ideas and beliefs had on a period of history and

specifies how events might have been different in the absence of those ideas and

beliefs

       5.  Understands that the consequences of human intentions are influenced by the

means of carrying them out

     10.  Understands how the past affects our private lives and society in general

     11.  Knows how to perceive past events with historical empathy

 

Time required

 

This lesson is expected to take one to two 50-minute class periods, depending on the amount of outside reading or media center research assigned. 

 

Materials

 

John Winthrop, Oliver Cromwell, and the Land of Promise

Copy of the U.S. Constitution and its Amendments

 

The Lesson

 

Lesson-Starter

1.      Read aloud the paragraph on page 146 that begins, “Cromwell was speaking for all moderates of all time….the question for such leaders is not just what is right in the abstract, but what people can accept.”

2.      Ask students to jot down their responses to the prompt, either in their journals or class notebooks. 

3.      Explain that will be tracing the evolution of democratic institutions from the “divine right of kings” to the “Agreement of the People” in readings from John Winthrop, Oliver Cromwell, and the Land of Promise. 

 

Procedures

 

1.  Direct students to read selections from John Winthrop, Oliver Cromwell, and the Land of Promise focusing on the following segments:

·        Prologue, pp. 1-5

·        Chapter 1, “The British Heaven,” selections (pp. 9-14)

·        Chapter 4, “Conscience,” pp. 50-62

·        Chapter 11, “Agreement of the People,” pp. 137-150

       2.   Discuss how the medieval religious concept of the “Great Chain of Being,”

which assigned all living things to their proper and unchangeable station in life and

eternity, is upended by the Reformation as the Diggers press for economic equality, the Levellers demand political equality, and the Quakers assert that every human being has equal access to divine revelation.  Remind students to keep these ideals formulated by 17th century religious groups in mind as they track the struggle for political, economic, social, and religious equality through American history during the course of the year’s studies. 

3. During the year, ask students to add to their base of knowledge as they read in

their textbooks or conduction additional research to learn about New England’s

Puritan Theocracy, the Glorious Revolution (and its American offshoot, Bacon’s

Rebellion), the Articles of Confederation, the Constitution and the Bill of Rights.

Students should track the expansion of the franchise and civil rights to African-

Americans, women, and young people through amendments to the Constitution

(including the 13th, 14th, 15th, 19th, and 26th Amendments) along with the direct

election of senators (17th Amendment) and elimination of the poll tax (24th

Amendment).  Students should also examine the elimination of property requirements

in the Jacksonian era, along with Progressive Era measures which notably gave

citizenship and voting rights to Native Americans (Indian Citizenship Act of 1924). 

Finally, they should investigate the post-World War II Civil Rights movement and its

impact on abolishing literacy tests and other barriers to the vote, along with the end of

segregation and its social and political impact., along with the relaxation of residency

requirements and easing of voter registration requirements culminating with the

motor-voter movement Ask students to note the historical impediments to change,

what changes were enacted most swiftly and thorough (and why) and what issues

remain (such as the elimination of the electoral college in favor of direct election of

the President, the failure of the Equal Rights Amendment for women, or the effort to

restore voting rights to felons who have served out their sentences).  Ask students to

try to crystallize their own opinion about whether it is better to compromise a

principle to partially achieve a goal, or reject compromise and stay true to their

principles.

 

Assessment – Democracy’s Debate

1.  As a culminating activity, the class will be divided into two teams for a debate

over the proposition that “Democracy expands best by a pragmatic approach marked by compromise and gradual change rather than by an idealist approach marked by devotion to principle and revolutionary change.” Students on each team will present arguments and examples supporting their case; offer counterarguments in reaction to the other teams’ presentation, and make final rebuttals/closing statements.

2.  Divide the class equally.  If one person is left over, assign that person to be the time-keeper/moderator.  Either assign or have students sign up for one of the following jobs:

·        Lead team:  This team will need to select the historical examples to support their contention, write up note-cards for the presenters, and present the argument in 10 minutes.

·        Counterargument Team:  This team will need to think on its feet, reacting to the points made by their opponents and presenting additional historical counter-evidence which undermines their opponent’s claims and/or which reinforces their own argument in 5 minutes.

·        Closing Statement Team:  This team will need to prepare a persuasive argument why their contention is best supported by history, and may draw upon quotations, statistics, or visual images to carry their argument, which should be presented in a 3 minute summation.   

3.  Announce a date for “Democracy’s Debate,” one to two weeks in advance of the actual debates so students have a deadline, but time to conduct research.

4.  Set up a seating chart for the day with the two sides divided and the presentation teams groups together.  The time-keeper will moderate the presentation and manage the floor during the debate, particularly if presentation teams should shift their seats.  So that the counterargument teams are not talking during the presentation, provide them with five minutes after both lead teams have made their presentations to pull their counterarguments together.  Any speaker or member of the audience who becomes rude, abusive, or disruptive will be ejected from the debate. 

5.  At the conclusion of the debate, ask students to assess what argument the opposing team offered that was most powerful and what argument of their own team was the most powerful.

6.  The students’ participation in the debate may be evaluated on a twenty-point scale (which may be multiplied by five to convert to 100-point scale or for conversion to letter grades) using the following rubric:

 


     

 

Excellent (5)

Good (4)

Fair (3-2)

Not

Satisfactory (1)

No

Work (0)

Oral Skills

Effective

Speaker – tonal

variety, speed,

volume, clarity

Minor

Problems –

monotone,

soft, mumbling

too rapid

Numerous

speaking

problems or

 

Minimal participation

Communication

lacking,

Wanders off

topic

Does not participate

Historical

Research

 

Locates and uses specific  historical arguments and examples

 

No factual errors

Locates and uses general historical arguments and a few examples

 

No factual errors

Locates and uses general information

 

Some factual errors

Little research

 

Limited understanding of arguments

 

Many factual errors

No research

Team presentation

Knowledge of information is deep; little need to refer to notes

 

Enthusiastic and persuasive relationship with audience

Above average enthusiasm and audience impact

 

Good knowledge but reliance on notes

Reads, making little contact with audience

 

Average knowledge

Reads and makes no contact with audience

 

Limited knowledge and information base

Does not participate

Group

Skills

Natural participation in ebb and flow of debate; improvises well

 

Contributes to the debate but does not monopolize it

 

Displays courtesy

Participates effectively but doesn’t improvise well in debate situation

 

Displays courtesy

Monopolizes debate

Minimal contribution to team effort

Inappropriate comments or does not contribute

 

Additional Resources

Books

Abernathy, George L., ed., The Idea of Equality:  An Anthology.  (Richmond, VA:  Knox, 1959).

Axtell, James.  Natives and Newcomers:  The Cultural Origins of North America (New York:  Oxford University Press, 2001).

Bergin, Joseph, ed., The Short Oxford History of Europe:  The Seventeenth Century. (Oxford, England:  Oxford University Press, 2001).

Bremer, Francis J.  The Puritan Experiment:  New England Society from Bradford to Edwards.  (New York:  St. Martin’s, 1976; rev. ed., Hanover, NH:  University Press of New England, 1995).

Cave, Albert A.  The Pequot War.  (Amherst, MA:  University of Massachusetts, 1996).

Delbanco, Andrew.  The Puritan Ordeal.  (Cambridge, MA:  Harvard University Press, 1989).

Firth, Sir Charles.  Oliver Cromwell and the Rule of the Puritans in England.  (London:  Oxford University Press, 1900; World’s Classics Edition, 1961).

Fraser, Antonia.  Cromwell, Our Chief of Men. (London:  Weidenfeld, 1973; Methuen paperback, 1985).

Gaustad, Edwin S.  Liberty of Conscience:  Roger Williams in America.  (Grand Rapids, MI:  Eerdmans, 1991).

Hall, David D., ed.  The Antinomian Controversy, 1636-1638:  A Documentary History.  (Durham, NC:  Duke University Press, 1990). 

Heimert, Alan and Andrew Delbanco, eds., The Puritans in America:  A Narrative Anthology. (Cambridge, MA:  Harvard University Press, 1985).

Kishlansky, Mark.  A Monarchy Transformed:  Britain 1603-1714. (London and New York:  Penguin, 1997). 

Kupperman, Karen Ordahl.  Indians & English:  Facing Off in Early America.  (Ithaca, NY:  Cornell University Press, 2000).

Morgan, Edmund Sears.  The Puritan Dilemma:  The Story of John Winthrop.  (Boston:  Little, Brown, 1958).

Schama, Simon. A History of Britain, vol. II.  (New York:  Hyperion, Talk Miramax Books, 2001).

Winship, Michael P.  Making Heretics:  Militant Protestantism and Free Grace in Massachusetts, 1636-1641.  (Princeton, NJ:  Princeton University Press, 2002).

Internet Resources

The British Civil War site referenced in the book as Skyhook has moved to http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/

Questia is a subscription-based service with access to a number of books and scholarly journals available at www.questia.com

Gardiner’s Constitutional Documents of the Puritan Revolution is located at http://www.constitution.org/eng/conpur_.htm

Interdisciplinary Activities

 

Language Arts

Computers and electronics have transformed modern life but this is not the first “information age.”  The impact of the printing press with the proliferation of books and print images in the 16th and 17th centuries was every bit as profound. Ask students to refer to John Winthrop, Oliver Cromwell, and the Land of Promise as a resource to investigate one of the following topics.  The Story of English, originally aired as a nine-part series on PBS, provides additional information in the companion book by Robert McCrum, William Cran, and Robert MacNeil.  (New York:  Penguin, 1987; rev. ed. 1993).

a) The impact of books and literacy on the people of England and New England during this era.

b) How literacy, books (such as the King James Bible and Shakespeare’s plays) and works by poets such as John Milton and Anne Bradstreet shaped the English language. 

c) How Loyalists and Puritans tried to shape public opinion during this period.  Persuasive techniques in word and image may include:  repetition, join the bandwagon, glittering generalities, appeal to the “common man,” oversimplification, testimonials (often of experts), stereotyping, scapegoating, slogans, scare tactics, transference or attacking a “straw man,” vague or confusing wording.    

 

Art 

Advocates have often harnessed the visual arts in the drive for equality.  Ask students to select one group (such as Native Americans) or format (such as banners), collect, and analyze the use of symbols, composition and color to make a persuasive argument.  For example, suffragists often wore white; wore sashes or carried banners of gold and purple; created pins representing jail-cell doors where their leaders had been imprisoned.   Cesar Chavez’ United Farm Workers carried banners of the Black Eagle and the Virgen de Guadelupe during the Delano Plan march of 1965 and other UFW protests.

Communications/Media

Protest and advocacy have been part of the movement for equality throughout U.S. history.  Examine the means by which equal rights advocates have disseminated their message including:  protest meetings/parades/demonstrations/acts of civil disobedience, newspapers and magazines, pamphlets, radio and television, posters and billboards, direct mail appeals in print/video/CD, internet.  Evaluate how they have adapted with time, technology, and message. 

History/Government

Students may select one of the following activities:

a)  Compare and contrast the English Bill of Rights (1689) with the Declaration of Independence, examining parallel structure of the compositions, word choice, and content.

b)  Compare and contrast the first section of the Declaration of Independence with the preamble to the U.S. Constitution comparing word choice and content.

c)  Compare and contrast the Declaration of Independence with the Seneca Falls Declaration (1848), examining parallel structure of the compositions, word choice, and content.

Economics

A number of pieces of legislation in U.S. history have been adopted with the objective of increasing economic equality, opportunity, and security for Americans.  Ask students to investigate the arguments for and against measures such as the following ones at the time they were adopted, or today, or to evaluate their effectiveness:

·        16th Amendment (1913) – gave Congress power to levy the U.S. Income Tax

·        Federal Estate Tax (1916) – gave Congress the power to tax estates of those who had died

·        Social Security (1935) – provided unemployment insurance, pensions for the elderly and disabled

·        Equal Pay Act (1963) – Prohibits sex-based wage discrimination

·        Equal Employment Opportunity Act (1964)  – With origins in Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, this has been expanded with subsequent legislation to  prevent discrimination in hiring and employment on the basis of race, color, sex, national origin, religion, age, and physical disability