The Real Revolution:

The Global Story of American Independence

 

Study Guide

 

Introduction

 

This study guide is designed to enhance students’ mastery of key content and skills in U.S. and World History, geography, economics and other disciplines through examination of the people, ideas, and trade networks that created the American Revolution.  It is intended to be used in conjunction with The Real Revolution: The Global Story of American Independence by Sibert Award-winning author Marc Aronson, along with other materials.  The lessons will complement curriculum in the social studies, particularly colonial and pre-Revolutionary U.S. history, mercantilism and colonialism in world history, boom-bust economic cycles and the origins of representative institutions.  Each lesson is designed with multiple objectives in mind, to make the most efficient use of teachers’ time.

The guide consists of four lesson plans drawn from topics investigated in The Real Revolution: The Global Story of American Independence:               

·        HDI:  MPU – History Detectives Investigation of the Missing Persons of the American Revolution

·        “The Revolution was in the Minds of the People” – Reading Guide and Cartoon Analysis for The Real Revolution

·        Heard ‘Round the World:  Using Maps and Time Lines to Explore the American Revolution as a Global Event

·        Why Tea?:  A Simulation Game showing the Impact of Global Economics on the Boston Tea Party and the American Revolution

 

Within each lesson plan you will find all or most of the following information:

·        Synopsis of lesson

·        National curriculum standards met by this lesson (based on Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning standards and benchmarks,  www.mcrel.org)

·        Time required

·        Materials needed

·        The lesson (with lesson-starter and lesson procedures)

·        Additional resources

·        Interdisciplinary activities

 

Although the study guide is designed so that the four lesson plans provide an integrated course of studies, it is not expected that students will complete all the listed activities.  Teachers may assign selected activities to their classes, allow students to choose an activity for themselves, or set up independent learning centers with the material needed for suggested activities.  Also, teachers may wish to give students the opportunity to earn extra credit by completing some activities as independent work.  Recognizing the time and accountability constraints facing classroom teachers, we encourage you to select and adapt The Real Revolution: The Global Story of American Independence activities that best meet your students’ needs and abilities, curriculum requirements, and your teaching style. 

 

This study guide was written by Jean M. West, an education consultant in Port Orange, Florida. She is a 5th great-grandniece of the artist Benjamin West, although Marc Aronson decided to illustrate his book with The Death of Wolfe and The Grant of Diwani to Lord Clive long before he learned about the link.


I. HDI: MPU – History Detectives Investigation of the Missing Persons of the American Revolution

 

Synopsis

 

The Real Revolution: The Global Story of American Independence explores the idea that “America became an independent nation because of connections that linked together people, ideas, and goods all over the world.”  This lesson examines the people worldwide whose ideas and actions contributed to the American Revolution. Assuming the role of police assigned to HDI: MPU (History Detectives Investigation: Missing Persons Unit), students will document the life of one of the individuals in the Cast of Characters (pp. x-xiv) to learn how that person helped to bring about the American Revolution.  They will also evaluate the importance of the individual they have studied in comparison with other individuals profiled by their classmates.  The lesson is most appropriate for middle school students, grades 6-8 but may be suitable for high school students grades 9-12.

 

National Curriculum Standards

 

Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning has created standards and benchmarks for language arts, math, science, geography, economics, and history. 

This lesson meets standards and benchmarks for:

United States History Standard (4th Ed.) for Era 3 – Revolution and the New Nation (1754-1820s) including benchmark:

6.      Understands the causes of the American Revolution, the ideas and interests involved in shaping the revolutionary movement, and reasons for the American victory

 

World History Standards (4th Ed.)

For Era 6 – Global Expansion and Encounter, 1450-1770 including benchmarks:

      26. Understands how the transoceanic interlinking of all major regions of the world              between 1450 and 1600 led to global transformation

      29.  Understands the economic, political, and cultural interrelations among peoples of                       Africa, Europe, and the Americas between 1500 and 1750

For Era 7 – An Age of Revolutions, 1750-1914 including benchmark:

      32.  Understands the causes and consequences of political revolutions in the late                  18th and early 19th centuries

Historical Understanding (4th Ed.) Standard 2:  Understands the historical perspective including benchmark:

1.  Analyzes the values held by specific people who influenced history and the role

their values played in influencing history

 

Time Required

 

This lesson will probably take one to two class periods, depending on the amount of research and written work assigned outside of class.

 

Materials Needed

     

·        The Real Revolution:  The Global Story of American Independence (Cast of Characters, pp. x-xiv) 

·        Manila Folders

·        Blank sample documents (optional, following lesson)

·        Scanned images or photocopies of portraits from the book (optional, see page numbers in Note to the Teacher below)                                                        

 

The Lesson

 

Note to the Teacher

 

1.      In this lesson, students will be researching biographical information about one of

      the nearly 100 individuals listed in the Cast of Characters (pp. x-xiv) of The Real   

     Revolution.  You may wish to prepare the manila folders in advance, labeling   

     them with the names of the individuals whose study, you believe, best match your 

     students and curriculum.  (If your school cannot provide you with blank manila

folders, ask for donations from an office supply store or school business partner

and follow up with a thank-you note from your principal and/or class.) 

 

2.      Students will be assuming the role of detectives in this activity, filling their empty

“cold-case” missing persons files with “documents” pertaining to the individual whose identity they are trying to re-create.  If your local D.A.R.E. officer or school police liaison can assist, you could enlist them to talk about their codes for missing persons and the procedures or protocols they use to establish identity.

 

3.      For the lesson starter you may wish to make a transparency or a classroom set of photocopies of the image of John Wilkes on page 134.

 

4.      Since students will be attempting to locate or produce portraits of their missing persons, this may be an opportunity to collaborate with the computer teacher to show students how to scan images or locate non-copyrighted images on the internet.  Alternately, to save time you may choose to photocopy some of the portraits listed below from the book for this educational activity, so students have an image they can “colorize” including:



British

East India Company

Robert, Lord Clive, Baron of

     Plassey, pp. 46, 70, 112, 123,

     and 154

 

 

 

 


Margaret, née Maskelyne, wife

     of Robert, Lord Clive, p. 123

Stringer Lawrence, p. 15

 

The Johnstone Clan

John Johnstone, p. 113

George Johnstone,

     Member of Parliament, p. 74

 

Members of Parliament

John Montagu, Earl of Sandwich,  

     p. 24

John Wilkes, p. 134

 

Banker

Alexander Fordyce, p. 145

 

Soldiers Fighting in America

Major General James Wolfe,

     p. 50

Major Isaac Barré, pp. 50, 83

Major General Jeffrey Amherst,

     p. 54

French

Joseph François-Dupleix, p. 14

 

Americans

Eighteenth Century Colonists

George Washington, pp. 30, 155

Thomas Jefferson, pp. 86, 176

James Otis, Jr., p. 60

John Adams, pp. 81, 176, 178

Patrick Henry, p. 85

Benjamin Franklin, pp. 102, 176, 178

            Samuel Adams, p. 161

            Thomas Paine, p. 168

 

            Twentieth-Century Leaders

            Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

p. 187

 

            East Indians

Mir Jafar, nawab, pp. 46, 154

Shah Alam II, p. 112


 

Lesson-Starter

1.      Ask students, “Which name on this page belongs to the person in the portrait?” and then show them the image of John Wilkes from page 134.   The following names appear on the page: Bickerstaff, Locke, Sidney, John Wilkes, Benjamin West, Fleeming, John Mein.  Ask students to explain what clues help them to match “John Wilkes, Esq.” to the portrait.  Ask students what year this image was printed. (The almanac is dated 1769).

2.      Explain that Wilkes-Barré, Pennsylvania is named, in part, for John Wilkes, an English Member of Parliament.  Tell students that Wilkes-Barré is also named for Major Isaac Barré, a hero of the French and Indian War and later a Member of Parliament.   Ask students to locate the town on a map. 

3.      Ask students to hypothesize why Wilkes-Barré (founded in 1768) might have been named for these men and why the name was not changed following the American Revolution.  In 1838, English actor Junius Brutus Booth, Sr. named a son, John Wilkes Booth, after Wilkes who had died in 1797.  Ask students how significant Wilkes must have been if children were still being named for him nearly 40 years after his death. 

4.      Explain that John Wilkes and Isaac Barré were powerful voices for democracy and America in the years leading to the American Revolution, but their names rarely appear in U.S. history textbooks anymore.

Procedures

1.      Tell students that you have a stack of “cold-case” files on a group of missing persons.  Emphasize that they are not wanted persons being sought in connection with a crime, but people who have suffered identity theft so severe that little remains of them in America except a name and the occasional picture.  Explain that the police have too heavy a current case load to deal with these long missing persons, so they are deputizing students as members of the HDI: MPU (History Detectives Investigation: Missing Persons Unit).  Their job is to find these people and reconstruct their identities with the hope of finally bringing them home.  Explain that the missing persons have a common link in that they have disappeared from American history books, in particular from the chapters dealing with causes of the American Revolution.  As deputized members of HDI: MPU, they will be responsible for locating information to recreate documents which will help historians restore the missing persons to their proper place in history books. 

 

2.      Either allow students to select a “missing person” or assign each student a “missing person.”  Hand out the manila folders.  If not pre-labeled, students will need to label one side of the file tab with the name of their “missing person” and will need to write their own name on the reverse side of the file tab.

 

3.      Explain to students that they will need to learn all they can about their “missing person” including:

·        A physical description

·        Family and personal relationships

·        Educational background

·        Business and/or Professional abilities and affiliations

·        Beliefs, interests, personal habits or hobbies

·        Medical history

       Students will need to research what has been written about their “missing

       person” in The Real Revolution, general references, biographies, encyclopedias, 

       and reputable internet history sites (such as those listed in the back of The Real

       Revolution on pp. 220-221).  For the folder creation, they will be focusing on retrieving basic biographical information.  For the assessment (later in the lesson) they also need to collect information which will help them to determine a) what this person’s main accomplishments were in life and b) what their link was to the American Revolution (along with how significant this was in contributing to the revolution). 

 

They should take notes as they read which they can later transform into documents for their cold-case manila file folder.  Students need to keep a list of sources for a bibliography including information such as title, author, copyright, publisher, place published, and/or website. 

 

    4.  Because they are documenting the “missing person,” they will need to fill the   empty manila folder with the following items which they create themselves:

a.       Birth certificate, marriage certificate, and/or military commission

b.      Diary entry from subject’s childhood

c.       Newspaper article about a significant event in which your individual was involved

d.      Letter from your individual to another person about their beliefs

e.       Obituary, epitaph from gravestone, and/or death certificate

f.        Life-line (a chronological time-line of important events in this person’s life)

g.       Color portrait (may be student-created, student-colored, or researched and printed out in color)

h.       A standard bibliography listing where students obtained information, whether from print or electronic sources

 

Generic birth, marriage, death, and military commission certificates have been created from standard word-processing and graphics programs and appear at the end of this lesson.  Students may wish to make their own computer-generated or hand-made documents, so these are only suggestions.  Students can lend authenticity by “antiquing” their documents—creating them on wrinkled brown paper bags, tearing edges ragged, or staining their documents (coffee or tea works well and is not sticky.)

 

5.      Once the students have turned in their manila folders with the recreated “documentation,” provide time so all students have the opportunity to examine all the files their classmates have created.

 

Assessment

 

1.      Considering historical perspective, Francis Bacon once wrote, “For rightly is truth called the daughter of time.” As a culminating activity, ask students to write a two-part evaluation of the historical people they have investigated.  In the first paragraph, ask students to explain a) what link their “missing person” had to the American Revolution; and b) react to Bacon’s observation and rank as truthfully as possible how important their “missing person” was in causing the American Revolution using this scale:  essential, very important, important, slightly important, or unimportant; and c) why they ranked their “missing person” the way they did.  In the second paragraph, ask students to think about the other “missing person” files compiled by their classmates and to a) select the “missing person,” other than their own, that they think should be mentioned in all U.S. history books’ chapters on the causes of the American Revolution and b) to explain why that person was essential to the American Revolution.

 

2.      The students’ “missing person” file may be evaluated with fewer than the seven “documents” and bibliography outlined in the procedures, or more, at the teacher’s discretion.  The document file and evaluation may be graded on a twenty-five point scale (which can be multiplied by four to convert to 100-point scale or for conversion to letter grades) using the following rubric:

 

 

Excellent

Good

Fair

Poor

No Work

Historical Research

 

5 points

(5) Written assignment

·         Is based on a wide variety of excellent resources

·         Shows comprehensive research

·         Includes a complete bibliography

 

(4) Written assignment

·         Is based on a variety of reliable sources

·         Shows complete research

·         Includes a complete bibliography

(3-2) Written assignment

·         Is based on  reliable sources

·         Shows adequate research

·         Includes a bibliography but format or content is incomplete

(1) Written assignment

·         Is based on limited sources

·         Shows minimal research

·         Lacks a bibliography 

  0

Writing Skills

 

10 points

(10) File’s Written Documents are

·         complete

·         show excellent command of facts

·         demonstrate imaginative  synthesis of information

·         use appropriate grammar, spelling, and punctuation

(9-8) File’s Written Documents are

·         complete

·         show good command of facts

·         demonstrate a good  synthesis of information

·         use appropriate grammar, spelling, and punctuation

(7-6) File’s Written Documents are

·         complete

·         show general command of facts

·         demonstrate fair  synthesis of information

·         use generally appropriate grammar, spelling, and punctuation

 

(5-1) File’s Written Documents are

·         incomplete

·         show little command of facts

·         fail to synthesize information from different sources

·         cut and pasted or copied from other sources

·         have persistent grammar, spelling, and/or punctuation problems

0

Felicity of Presentation

 

5 points

 

(5) Assignment has

·         color portrait

·         attractive, complete, and well-organized life-line

·         artistic presentation 

(4) Assignment has

·         color portrait

·         attractive, complete and well-organized life-line

·         attractive presentation

 

(3-2) Assignment has

·         color portrait

·         life-line which may be incomplete or disorganized

·         neat presentation

(1) Assignment

·         Lacks either color portrait or life-line

·         is sloppy or disorganized

·         has unattractive  presentation

 

0

Evaluation Paragraphs

 

5 points

(5) Include:

·         five required elements

·         excellent analysis and interpretation of historical information

(4) Include:

·         five required elements

·         good analysis and interpretation of historical information

(3-2) Include:

·         five required elements

·         fair analysis and interpretation of historical information

(1) Include:

·         some required elements

·         little analysis and interpretation of historical information

0

 

Additional Resources

Print Resources

Anderson, Fred. Crucible of War:  The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754-1766.  New York: Vintage, 2001.

Bence-Jones, Mark.  Clive of India.  London: Constable and Company, 1974.

Fabel, Robin F. A. Bombast and Broadsides:  The Lives of George Johnstone.  Tuscaloosa, Ala.: University of Alabama Press, 1987.

Faragher, John Mack. Daniel Boone:  The Life and Legend of an American Pioneer.  New York:  Henry Holt, 1992.

Foner, Eric. Tom Paine and Revolutionary America.  New York:  Oxford University Press, 1976.

Halliday, E. M. Understanding Thomas Jefferson.  New York: HarperCollins, 2001.

Isaacson, Walter.  Benjamin Franklin:  An American Life. New York:  Simon & Schuster, 2003.

Jaffe, Stephen H.  Who Were the Founding Fathers?: Two Hundred Years of Reinventing American History.  New York:  Henry Holt, 1996.

Marrin, Albert.  The War for Independence:  The Story of the American Revolution.  New York: Atheneum, 1988.

McCullough, David.  John Adams.  New York: Simon and Schuster, a Touchstone Book, 2001. 

Tey, Josephine.  The Daughter of Time.  New York: Simon and Schuster, a Touchstone Book, Reprint Edition, 1995.

Internet Resources

A Web of English History: The Age of George III can be accessed through   http://dspace.dial.pipex.com/town/terrace/adw03/c-eight/18chome.htm but is moving to and already available at http://www.historyhome.co.uk/c-eight/18chome.htm

Archiving Early America, Famous Obits http://www.earlyamerica.com/earlyamerica/obits/list.html

Charles Townshend, His Character and Career http://home.worldonline.co.za/~townshend/charles_townshend_lecture.htm

 

Interdisciplinary Activities

 

Art

The portraits in The Real Revolution are by some of the most noted painters and engravers of the 18th and 19th centuries.  Students may select one of the following activities.

a)  Create a biography and portfolio of copies of major works for one of the following artists: 


John Singleton Copley

Nathaniel Dance

Thomas Gainsborough

William Hogarth

Charles Willson Peale

Sir Henry Raeburn

Edward Penny

Sir Joshua Reynolds

Paul Revere

John Trumbull

Benjamin West 


 

b) Collect a portfolio illustrating multiple representations of the same individual over time (such as King George III, Robert Clive, John Wilkes, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson.) Students may expand their research from print and paint images to include coin and statuary representations.  The portfolio will be accompanied by the student’s analysis describing how different artists have approached the same subject, and how it has changed over time.

 

Language Arts

a) Following their research and compilation of information about their “missing person,” students may use their biographical knowledge in a creative writing assignment.  Possible forms they might explore include:

·        a poem

·        short story

·        one-act play

 

b) After having created biographical files, students may examine a typical biography (such as the ones listed in additional resources) or autobiography, such as Benjamin Franklin’s, and critique it considering:

·        Is this biography/autobiography factual or not?  Is it complete?

·        Is the subject of this book idealized or presented objectively? 

·        Are there any biases revealed by this book?  Any unique point-of-view?

·        Is the narrative cohesive?

·        What documentation is provided to corroborate main events in this book?

 

c)  Students may compare and contrast two biographies of the same individual, for example some of the biographies mentioned in the endnotes and bibliography of The Real Revolution.  On the other hand, they might instead contrast approaches by historical novelists with that of historians to the same subject (such as Irving Stone’s Those Who Love: A Biographical Novel of Abigail and John Adams with David McCullough’s biography, John Adams).

 

d)  Josephine Tey’s classic mystery The Daughter of Time examines how a detective in a hospital bed collaborates with a historian to solve the historical mystery of the death of the little princes in the Tower of London.  It would be an ideal introduction or follow-up to this lesson.  It also shows how Thomas More’s (Utopia) political disagreements with Richard III were repeated in Shakespeare’s play, which has colored popular perception of the history of this period to the present.  Students might address the ethical issue of whether the fiction writer has a responsibility to history when creating a docudrama.

 

Media/Communications

Ask students to consider the genre of film biographies.  Students should ask themselves:

·        Is this film factual or not?

·        Is the individual idealized by the film or presented objectively?

·        Is the casting convincing?

·        Do the sets and costumes create a convincing historical environment?

·        Is the storyline cohesive or are there confusing jumps or gaps?

·        What is the balance between action and dialogue in this film?  Does it advance your understanding of the individual being portrayed?

·        What would I do differently, if anything?

 

Students might look at Darryl F. Zanuck’s 1935 film, Clive of India, featuring Ronald Colman and Loretta Young (the poster appears on page 21) or another biography of a figure of the Revolutionary Era and evaluate the film by answering the above criteria.  Other possible films, cartoons, musicals or television biopics students might view include:

 

1776 (1972)

Ben and Me (1953)

Cromwell (1970)

Daniel Boone, Trail Blazer (1956)

Drums Along the Mohawk (1939)

George Washington (1984 with Barry Bostwick)

Give Me Liberty (1936)

The Howards of Virginia (1940)

Johnny Tremain (1957)

Last of the Mohicans (1992)

The Madness of King George (1994)

Northwest Passage (1940)

Profiles in Courage, John Adams (1964)

Williamsburg, Story of a Patriot (1957)

Young Mr. Pitt (1942)

Young Bess (1953)

               

 

 



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

II. “The Revolution was in the Minds of the People” – Reading Guide and Cartoon Analysis for The Real Revolution              

 

Synopsis

 

The Real Revolution: The Global Story of American Independence explores the idea that “America became an independent nation because of connections that linked together people, ideas, and goods all over the world.”  This lesson is a structured reading guide for the book, designed to help students examine the growth and exchange of ideas worldwide that  contributed to the American Revolution. Students will define vocabulary and answer questions planned to help them understand content and also develop political cartoon comprehension and analysis skills.  The lesson is most appropriate for secondary school social studies students grades 6-12.

 

National Curriculum Standards

 

Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning has created standards and benchmarks for language arts, math, science, geography, economics, and history. 

This lesson meets standards and benchmarks for:

United States History Standard (4th Ed.) for Era 3 – Revolution and the New Nation (1754-1820s) including benchmark:

7.      Understands the causes of the American Revolution, the ideas and interests involved in shaping the revolutionary movement, and reasons for the American victory

 

World History Standards (4th Ed.)

For Era 6 – Global Expansion and Encounter, 1450-1770 including benchmarks:

      29.  Understands the economic, political, and cultural interrelations among peoples of                       Africa, Europe, and the Americas between 1500 and 1750

For Era 7 – An Age of Revolutions, 1750-1914 including benchmark:

      32.  Understands the causes and consequences of political revolutions in the late                  18th and early 19th centuries

Historical Understanding (4th Ed.) Standard 2:  Understands the historical perspective including benchmarks:

2.      Analyzes the influence specific ideas and beliefs had on a period of history

6.      Knows different types of primary and secondary sources and the motives,

      interests, and bias expressed in them (e.g., eyewitness accounts, letters, artifacts,

      photos; magazine articles, newspaper accounts, hearsay)

 


Time Required

 

This lesson will probably take one class period, depending on the amount of reading and written work assigned outside of class.

 

Materials Needed

     

·        The Real Revolution:  The Global Story of American Independence

·        The Real Revolution Guide

·        Political Cartoon Analysis Worksheet

 

The Lesson

 

Note to the Teacher

 

Examine the political cartoons first to determine which are most appropriate for use in your classroom. Please remember that 18th century sensibilities about ethnic groups, races, exaggerating physical characteristics, and depicting vice may be different from those today.  Some cartoons may be considered offensive, so select which ones you feel comfortable using in accordance to your district policies and taking into account your students’ maturity, reading level, and degree of experience in analyzing political cartoons.  After selecting the cartoons you wish to use, you will need to photocopy on paper or transparency or scan them into the computer so students will have copies to refer to during the lesson.

 

Lesson-Starter

1.      Show a transparency or provide students with a copy of Benjamin Franklin’s political cartoon, “Join, or Die.” Explain that in colonial times it was believed that a dead snake cut into pieces could come back to life if the pieces were joined back together before sunset.  Does the cartoon make more sense with that information? 

2.      Ask students what the initials on the eight pieces of the snake stand for.  (NE is New England.)  Ask why they think there are eight pieces instead of thirteen.  (Hint: Georgia was first settled in 1733 and as late as 1754 was populated by only about 3,000 colonists, was battling with the Spanish of Florida and the Creek Confederation, and was pondering union with South Carolina.) What is the main idea of Franklin’s cartoon?

3.      The cartoon was made at the time of the proposed Albany Plan of Union (intended to be an intercolonial union to contain the French and their Indian allies) and appeared in the Pennsylvania Gazette on May 9, 1754 along with Franklin’s editorial on “the present disunited state of the British Colonies.”  Based on this cartoon, how did colonists who supported the Albany Plan feel about union of the colonies?   How does knowing the historical background or context make a political cartoon easier to understand?

4.      Explain that union of the colonies had been proposed as early as 1744 by Iroquois Chief Canasatego and the Covenant Chain, a symbol of unity and friendship with the British, was solemnly renewed by Theyanoguin, the sachem of the Mohawk known as Chief Hendrick, at the June 1754 meeting in Albany.  Unity was not one of Benjamin Franklin’s inventions, but an idea with sources from around the world, like many other ideas of the revolutionary era.  How does the image of a chain relate to Franklin’s image?

5.      Read to students the quote from John Adams, written in 1815 to Thomas Jefferson  in To My Readers, p. xvi.  Ask what Adams meant by a revolution “in the minds of people”?  Explain that they will be tracing the ideas that helped America to become an independent nation through connections from all over the world.  They will be examining these ideas in words and, once they understand the historical setting, also through political cartoons in The Real Revolution.

Procedures

1.  Explain to students that they will be reading The Real Revolution to add to their          understanding of the ideas that caused the American Revolution.  Provide them            with the Real Revolution Guide to structure their reading and develop their ideas                   and vocabulary. 

 

2.  After their examination of the text, provide students with a copy of one of the      cartoons and the Political Cartoon Analysis Worksheet.  Students may work   individually or in pairs or small groups, may select a cartoon or the teacher may            prefer to assign cartoons.  When they have completed their analysis, ask students           to share what they have learned about their cartoon. 

                                                                                                                                                      Cartoons in The Real Revolution include:

·        William Hogarth, Gin Lane, p. 4 (Information may be found at Welcome to William Hogarth’s Realm, at http://hogarth.althacker.com/index.php?main=galDisplay&work=174 or http://hogarth.chez.tiscali.fr/gallery22.htm )

·        William Hogarth , Canvassing for Ballots, p. 23  (Analysis may be found at Welcome to William Hogarth’s Realm, at http://hogarth.althacker.com/index.php?main=galDisplay&work=144 or  http://hogarth.chez.tiscali.fr/gallery05.htm)

·        William Hogarth, John Wilkes, Esq., p. 66

·        William Hogarth, The Times, p.69

·        America Bears England’s Rubbish, p. 79 (Analysis in Exemplar of Liberty, Chapter 7, Mohawks, Axes, and Taxes at http://www.ratical.org/many_worlds/6Nations/EoL/chp7.html#fig18)

·        Benjamin Franklin, Join, or Die, p. 92 (Explanation at Archiving Early America’s http://earlyamerica.com/earlyamerica/firsts/cartoon/ )

·        Pennsylvania Journal, This is the Price to affix the STAMP, p. 93

·        Carington Bowles, A New Method of Macarony Making, p. 96

·        Paul Revere, An Obelisk, p. 104 (Explanation by Library of Congress, Harper’s Weekly display at http://loc.harpweek.com/LCPoliticalCartoons/DisplayCartoonLarge.asp?MaxID=12&UniqueID=1&Year=1766&YearMark=17 )

·        The Caledonian Voyage to Money-Land, p. 122

·        Paul Revere, The Bloody Massacre, p. 139 (Explanation by the Boston Massacre Historical Society is at http://www.bostonmassacre.net/gravure.htm )

·        A Macaroni Gambler, p. 145

·        Clive Kneeling, p. 150

·        The India-man wrecked, p. 151

·        Omichand’s Ghost, p. 151

·        Mitred Minuet, p. 164

 

Assessment

 

1.  The Real Revolution Guide may be evaluated on a twenty-point scale (which can be    

     multiplied by five to convert to 100-point scale or for conversion to letter grades)

     using the following rubric:


 

 

 

 

Excellent

 

Good

 

Fair

 

Not

Satisfactory

 

No

Work

Historical Comprehension

 

10 points

(10) Written assignment demonstrates excellent historical

·         analysis of information

·         command of facts

·         synthesis of information

·         interpretation

(9-8) Written assignment demonstrates good historical

·         analysis of information

·         command of facts

·         synthesis of information

·         interpretation

(7-6) Written assignment shows fair historical

·         analysis of information

·         command of facts

·         synthesis of information

·         interpretation

(5-1) Written assignment shows little historical

·         analysis of information

·         command of facts

·         synthesis of information

·         interpretation

  0

Technical Skills

 

10 points

(10) Written assignment shows excellent

·         thoroughness in answering all questions

·         completeness in answering questions

·         definition of vocabulary terms

·         sentence structure, vocabulary use, grammar, spelling, and punctuation

(9-8) Written assignment shows good

·         thoroughness in answering all questions

·         completeness in answering questions

·         definition of vocabulary terms

·         sentence structure, vocabulary use, grammar, spelling, and punctuation

(7-6) Written assignment shows

·         most questions were answered or attempted

·         questions were answered without detail

·         most vocabulary was defined correctly

·         adequate sentence structure, vocabulary use, grammar, spelling, punctuation

(5-1) Written assignment shows

·         missing questions

·         incomplete or incorrect answers

·         answers are difficult to understand due to grammatical, spelling, punctuation, or compositional problems

0

 

2.  Assess the Political Cartoon Analysis Worksheet on a 5-point scale which can be

     multiplied by 20 to convert to letter grade.  Evaluate as follows:

 

5 – Contains specific, clear references to the cartoon; complete analysis, and

insightful interpretation

4 – Contains some specific references to the cartoon; nearly complete analysis,

and good interpretation; may misinterpret one element of the cartoon

3-2 – Contains a few references to the cartoon; attempts some analysis and interpretation; may misinterpret some historical elements

1 – Contains rare references to cartoon; little or no attempt at analysis or interpretation; many misinterpretations of historical elements

0 – Student did not attempt the assignment

Additional Resources

Print Resources

Anderson, Fred. Crucible of War:  The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754-1766.  New York: Vintage, 2001.

Bence-Jones, Mark.  Clive of India.  London: Constable and Company, 1974.

Foner, Eric. Tom Paine and Revolutionary America.  New York:  Oxford University Press, 1976.

Halliday, E. M. Understanding Thomas Jefferson.  New York: HarperCollins, 2001.

Isaacson, Walter.  Benjamin Franklin:  An American Life. New York:  Simon & Schuster, 2003.

Jaffe, Stephen H.  Who Were the Founding Fathers?: Two Hundred Years of Reinventing American History.  New York:  Henry Holt, 1996.

Marrin, Albert.  The War for Independence:  The Story of the American Revolution.  New York: Atheneum, 1988.

Mattila, Nancy. “Join, or Die.” Cobblestone April 1991: 21-23.

McCullough, David.  John Adams.  New York: Simon and Schuster, a Touchstone Book, 2001. 

Ziemian, Joelle. “The Bloody Work of King Street by Paul Revere.” Appleseeds, A Cobblestone Publication October 2001: 16-17.

 

Internet Resources

Archiving Early America, Review, Fighting for A Continent: Newspaper Coverage of the

English and French War for Control of North America, 1754-1760 by David Copeland                                http://earlyamerica.com/review/spring97/newspapers.html

National History Day Teacher’s Guide:  John Adams and the Boston Massacre: A Triumphant Lawyer, A Tragic Episode http://nationalhistoryday.org/03_educators/teacher/boston.htm

National Park Service, Teaching with Historic Places, The Battle of Oriskany, Growing Tensions in New York http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/79oriskany/79facts1.htm

The Seven Years War Website                         http://www.militaryheritage.com/7ywart.htm

War for Empire Consortium,     http://www.frenchandindianwar250.org/

William Hogarth’s Realm                                                                http://hogarth.chez.tiscali.fr/ and http://hogarth.althacker.com/index.php

 

Interdisciplinary Activities

 

Economics

The boom and bust cycle that led to the financial crisis of 1772 was not the first or last to shake national and world economies.  Students could research and report on one of the following:

 


·        Tulip Mania

·        The South Sea Bubble

·        Mississippi Bubble

·        The Panic of 1837

·        Black Friday in 1869

·        Florida Real Estate Bubble

·        The Great Depression of 1929

·        The Dot.Com crash of 2000


 

Language Arts or Media/Communications

 

a) Although technology has allowed people to send their ideas more rapidly, the same basic persuasive techniques used by 18th century revolutionaries are still used today.  They are most commonly used in commercial and political advertising.  Ask students to define and collect examples in print or other media of:

·         name-calling

·         glittering generalities

·         loaded words

·         slogans

·         unproved assertions or the “big lie”

·         circular reasoning

·         ambiguous wording

·         scapegoating

·         testimonials

·         speaking as the “common man” or “plain folks”

·         jumping on the bandwagon

·         stacking the cards (presenting only one set of facts)

·         transfer (attaching popular or unpopular symbols to a person or idea)

·         repetition

·         creating an artificial deadline for decisions

·         appealing to self-interest

·         “God is on our side”

·         allusions, similes, or metaphors

·         hyperbole or exaggeration

 

b)  The colonists often felt that the British were treating them as if they were children, for example on pp. 103-104, George Mason compared Parliament’s tone to a parent saying, “We have, with infinite difficulty and fatigue got you excused this one time; pray be a good boy in the future; do what Papa and Mama bid you.”  Students may explore the possibility of turning the story of the American Revolution into an allegory of the parent-child relationship.  They could select a contemporary form (such as a rap song or a soap opera script) or a traditional form (such as a play or an essay).

 

Government

 

a)  The European roots of the American Revolution can be found in the writings of many earlier writers.  Many can be found at the Online Library of Liberty at: http://oll.libertyfund.org/Home3/index.php. Ask students to look for some of the ideas and ideals that  contributed to American’s ideas of democracy in the writings of:

·         Plato, The Republic  (state of Nature, ideal of Justice in society, allegory of the cave)

·         Magna Carta  (limits on royal power, trial by jury, due process, linking taxation with representation)

·         Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica (laws based on reason can create a perfect community)

·         Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Oration on the Dignity of Man (free will is man’s God-given right)

·         Niccolo Machiavelli, The Prince (analysis of the uses and effects of power)

·         Thomas Hobbes, The Leviathan (the social contract)

·         John Locke, Concerning Civil Government (inherent rights of humans, right to revolution)

·         John Milton, Aereopagitica (human rights should include freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and academic freedom)

·         Jean-Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract (equality of humanity)

·         Charles-Louis de Montesquieu, Spirit of the Law (liberty depends on government being restrained by law, separation of power, checks and balances, equality under law for all citizens)

Students should select quotes from the work they have studied and make a poster with it.  Place all posters on the bulletin board (or hang on a clothesline if wall-space is not available) and compare the quotes with passages from the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. 

 

b) Direct students to underline and identify the persuasive techniques (terms from the above checklist in the Language Arts/Media-Communications lessons) used in a copy of one of the following documents:

·        Thomas Paine, Common Sense, passage starting, “I offer nothing more than simple facts, plain arguments, and common sense,” and ending “Anything short of independence is mere patchwork and it can afford no lasting happiness.”

·        The Declaration of Independence

·        Patrick Henry’s Speech in the Virginia Convention, March 23, 1775 (Liberty or Death Speech)


The Real Revolution Guide                 ____________________Student Name

Read through each chapter to see how vocabulary words are used and define them in their historical context, and then answer the guide questions.

Chapter 1


“ironsides”

Parliament

Indiamen

Mogul

“presidencies”

Monsoon

Commission

 

Ensign

Mentor

Quartermaster

Lucrative

Serfdom

Involuntary

Inviolable

 

Arcane

House of Lords

House of Commons

“Rotten Borough”

“Pocket Borough”

Nabob


 

1.  When and how did the Moguls gain power in India? What was the status of Mogul power in the 18th century?  (Consider that the British East India Company had to go to the Moguls to receive grants for three “presidencies.”)

 

2.  From what type of India goods did the British East India Company make its fortune? For which products did the British East India Company trade fabric in Indonesia?  For which product did the British East India Company trade copper and sugar in China?  How did the East India Company’s business lead to connections among  people, goods, and ideas thank linked  England and Asia?

 

3.  Why did J. F. Dupleix attack Madras?  Explain whether you think it was nationalism (national rivalries in Europe between England, France, and the Netherlands), competition (business rivalries between the British, French, and Dutch East India companies), or ambition (such as that of Dupleix and Clive) that motivated him the most.

 

4.  In the 18th century, were most rulers giving more power to the people through legislatures?  What percentage of eastern Europeans were in forced labor during this period?  Globally, including Asia, Africa, and South America, what percentage of people were in forced labor with limited rights?  What happened for the first time in history as a result of The Glorious Revolution?

 

5.  In what ways was the 18th century Parliament undemocratic?  What is the difference between a “rotten borough” and a “pocket borough”?  Why was it important to have money if a person wanted to become a Member of Parliament? 

 

6.  What did Casanova mean when he said, “In London, everything is easy to him who has money and is not afraid to spend it”?  How did Clive’s position as quartermaster enable him to make £40,000 (40,000 pounds British currency)?  What did he receive payoffs for?  To what degree did fame and money enable Clive to improve his life? 

Why did Casanova’s expression prove false for Clive?

 

Chapter 2


Squire

Emulate

Heir

Land-speculation

Surveyor


 

1.  “Everything in Virginia was about land.”  Explain what that means and why colonial Americans had such a great hunger for land. 

 

2.  “Though the Washingtons were much wealthier than the Clives, George’s position was similar to Robert’s—near enough to real wealth to know what it could bring, but hobbled by a lack of resources.” What role does Washington’s ambition play in the events in Chapter 2?  What part does Washington’s self-reliance and self-discipline play in the events in this chapter? 

 

3.  “Clive fighting against Dupleix and Washington heading off into the wilderness were part of the same global struggle.” Why did Washington challenge the French for control of the Ohio River Valley?  Explain whether you think it was mainly nationalism (national rivalries in Europe between England and France), competition (business rivalries between the Anglo-American Ohio Company and French entrepreneurs), or ambition (such as that of Tanaghrisson and Washington).

 

4.  How was Indian fighting in America different from the English style of fighting? Did Braddock’s defeat cause Overseas English (Americans) to feel closer to Great Britain, or more distant? Did the rule that any English officer held a higher rank than an American, no matter how much experience or authority the American had, encourage a sense of closeness or distance between America and its mother country?

 

Chapter 3

Delta                           Nawab

 

1.  Explain why the Seven Years War (French and Indian War) could as easily be called the First World War. 

2.  Compare and contrast Tanaghrisson and Siraj Ud-Daula.  How did the lure of European money, goods, and alliances effect Native American tribes?  How did the lure of European money, goods, and alliances effect East Indians? 

3.  Did Clive’s actions—taking and making bribes, forging false treaties, acting independently of London’s control, enabling a business (the British East India Company) rule India’s provinces—encourage a sense of closeness or distance between the Overseas English in India and those in Great Britain?

4.  Compare and contrast the Battle of Plassey (1757) with the Battle of Quebec (1759).

Chapter 4


Mercantilism

Franchise

Coves

Jetties

Smuggling

Puritans

Writ of Assistance

Prophet

Vermin

Smallpox

Irreverence

Oppression

Impertinence


 

1.  According to the theory of mercantilism, who provided military protection, the authority to set up business and trade, and membership in a worldwide empire?  Who provided gold and other valuable raw materials?  What was the purpose of mercantilism?

How did North American colonists evade mercantilism?

 

2.  How did the British view the North American colonists’ evasion of mercantilism?  How did the Americans view their evasion of mercantilism?  How did these actions contribute to unity or divisions between the Overseas English in America and the English in Great Britain? 

 

3.  Thinking about their history and values, why would the descendents of the Puritans be so troubled by bribery, networking between powerful families and authorities, corruption, unrestricted search and seizure, and secretive powers?

 

4.  What limits did James Otis see on Parliament’s right to rule?  How did he view the relationship between the colonies and Great Britain?  How did he view the legal status of colonists (Overseas English) in comparison with Englishmen who lived in the British Isles?  How did Otis expand a mercantile court case into a declaration of the rights of American colonists?

 

5.  How did the French defeat in North America change conditions for Native Americans?  What was Neolin’s solution?  What was Pontiac’s military strategy to drive out the English?  What accounted for the level of barbarism on both sides during Pontiac’s Rebellion?  Why did the rebellion fail?  What was the British response to the rebellion?

 

6.  How did John Wilkes wield power?  Why did the workers and poverty-stricken support Wilkes?  How was the “liberty” (freedom of the press, freedom from oppression, and democratic representation and voice) desired by Wilkes’ supporters different from the liberty of the Glorious Revolution?

Chapter 5


Prime Minister

Debt

Interest

Proclamation Line

Customs

Stamp Tax

Disgruntled

Tyrant

Forfeit


 

1.  What was England’s national debt in 1763?  How much did the American colonies pay in charges for products purchased overseas and shipped to the colonies?  How much more did taxpayers in England pay in taxes than taxpayers in Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, or Maryland?

 

2.  What four measures did Grenville plan for the American colonies?  Why?

 

3.  Why were English nobles disturbed by the idea that those who had earned wealth or owned land (whether Lord Plassey, Squire Washington, or English farmers) deserved to vote for their representatives?  How had winning an empire failed to solve Britain’s problems but “simply spread them around the entire globe”?

 

Chapter 6


Bankruptcy

Articulate

Skeptics

Indulgence

Opulence

Grudge

Mite

Involuntary

Indentured Servants

Retribution

Convulsions

Abominable

Paradox


 

1.  Why did American colonial merchants borrow money during the Seven Years War?  Why could they not pay their debts after the war?  How could one merchant’s bankruptcy cause problems for other businessmen?  Could American merchants afford Grenville’s new customs taxes?  If colonial consumers had to pay higher taxes and also pay more for English goods, would they probably spend more or less on English goods?  Why were Grenville’s measures actually harmful to the English economy?

 

2.  How did pamphlets, letters, and books from England shape American readers’ views of England?  Why did many Americans think their freedom was in danger?  How was that view reinforced by the history of the English Civil War that led to the “Great Migration” to America, the “Land of Promise”?  How was that view reinforced by religious views about the struggle between good and evil?

 

3.  Why did the majority of members of Parliament oppose changing rules to allow fair representation of Englishmen in England and America?  What was Charles Townshend’s view of Americans?  What was Isaac Barré’s?

 

4.  How did enslaved Africans shape thoughts in Virginia and other slaveholding states about liberty, freedom, and rights?  What parallels were there between slaveholders’ attitudes towards slaves and British attitudes towards colonists? 

 

5.  Opportunity, success, hope, self-reliance, idealism, and protection of personal and political rights are one side of liberty that has fueled the American dream.  How have greed, exploitation, inequality, selfishness and slavery, the dark side of liberty, also fueled the American dream? 

 

Chapter 7


Committees of Correspondence

Macarony (or Macaroni)

 

Insinuation                   Non-importation

Pragmatism                  Boycotts

 


1.  Compare how long it took to travel from New York to Philadelphia by stagecoach in the 18th century with how long it takes to travel between those two cities either by bus, train, or plane today.  Compare how long it took to travel from New York to Boston by horseback in the 18th century with how long it takes to drive between those two cities today.  Compare how long it took to sail to England from American in the 18th century with how long it takes to fly in a standard passenger jet.  How long does it typically take to send a letter in an envelope across the country and receive a response, today?  How much faster than surface mail are the internet, instant-messaging, cell phones, or satellite television?  Is it sometimes easier to make contact with somebody around the world than somebody at your school who you don’t know well?  Why did the thirteen colonies find it so difficult to communicate and cooperate? 

 

2.  In the 1830s, French visitor Alexis de Tocqueville noted:  “Americans of all ages, all conditions, and all dispositions constantly form associations.”  Associations, or networks, developed in a number of ways.

a)  How did shipping on the Atlantic Ocean help communications among the colonies? How did Committees of Correspondence help information flow among the colonies?  What role did newspapers play in spreading information among the colonies?  How did publication of objections give others the courage to speak up about their own objections to the Stamp Act?  What role did ministers and churches play in shaping the debate and spreading the word?

b)  How did meetings, such as the Stamp Act Congress, help representatives from all over the colonies define what they thought “rights of Englishmen” meant?  How did they connect colonists in a network of ideas?  Is a network of ideas the first step towards unity?

c)  How did mobs (or gangs) serve as another type of network for independence?  What role did symbolic hangings of dummies, marches, destruction of property, tar and feathering and other forms of violence to property and people play in defeating British policy?

d)  How did the non-importation movement broaden the range of people in America who became involved in the dispute with England?  Did their actions echo Benjamin Franklin’s philosophy that “life was what you made it”? 

 

Chapter 8

El Dorado                                          Dispersed

Intimidated

 

1.  Compare and contrast MacIntosh’s Boston mob and the Paxton Boys from frontier Pennsylvania.  Why did some English land investors resist the Proclamation Line?

 

2.  Why do you think England thought a Proclamation Line was appropriate for American colonists but not for the British East India Company? 

 

Chapter 9


Stock

Stock market

Stock exchange

Speculators

Futures

Long Position

Selling Short

Frugal


 

1.  Buying stock in the British East India Company meant you bought a share, a portion, of the company.  In exchange for using your money the company promised to share with you its earnings by paying you dividends (ranging from 6% to12.5%).  When Clive conquered Bengal and said it would bring 2 million pounds additional earnings to the company, what did stock owners expect would happen to their dividends?  Why were people willing to pay higher prices to get a share? What happens to prices if more people want to buy something than is available?  What effect did the fight between Clive and Sulivan have on stock prices?  If you didn’t have the money, where could you get money to buy the stock with a down-payment (“buy on margin”)? 

 

2.  Explain how a Virginia squire’s decision to buy a slave was dependent on a Bengali rice farmer paying his taxes.

 

3.  How did the riches of Asia create a new kind of corruption of the English Parliament?  How did it create a new opportunity for those outside the nobility and minorities such as the Scots, Irish, and Jewish businessmen?

 

4.  How much did the British government get for providing military support to the East India Company?  How much did it cost the British government to station 10,000 troops in North America?  How much money did Townshend expect to raise from his taxes?

 

5.  How did Townshend’s taxes make Americans “frugal, ingenious, united, and discontented”?  What role did John Dickinson’s “Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania” play in uniting Americans?  What role did America’s 25 newspapers play in uniting Americans? What role did Samuel Adams and his network play in uniting Americans?

 

Chapter 10

1.  How did the arrival of British warships and troops in Boston force another wedge between England and the colonists?  How did the upheaval in England over seating John Wilkes in Parliament add to America’s alienation from England?

 

2.  How did American non-importation in 1769 effect trade with England?  Explain if the economic protests were entirely non-violent, or whether intimidation played a part.  How does a petition, such as the one on p. 136, unite people?  Does signing a petition make a protest more effective?  Explain.

 

3.  In what ways did the Boston Massacre illustrate violence being used in the name of liberty?  In what ways did the Boston Massacre illustrate the rule of law over mob rule?

 

4.  How did the East India Company respond to the drought and famine in Bengal in 1770?  How did English ideas about liberty and property rights make the situation worse?

 

Chapter 11


Cede

Vindictive

Dispassionate

Travesty


 

1.  How did Alexander Fordyce’s Ayr Bank failure cause bankruptcy on Virginia plantations?  How did this add to the push for American independence?

 

2.  Why did the East India Company run out of cash?  Why did the company ask the government for a loan?  How did the British government respond to the company? 

 

3.  How did the secret Parliamentary committee and the press expose the shortcomings of the East India Company and Clive?  Do you think Clive’s parliamentary accusers were equally as guilty of greed and dishonor as Clive?  Is this another instance of the dark side, as well as the bright side, of freedom?  Explain.

 

4.  Compare and contrast Clive with Washington.

 

5.  Why did nearly half of the Chinese tea in the East India Company’s warehouses end up in Boston and other North America ports?

 

Chapter 12


Duty

Intrepid

Epocha

Despotism

Reaffirmed

Militia

Industrious

Dissipation


 

1.  Why did Hutchinson think he had outwitted the Sons of Liberty?  How did they upset his plans on the evening of December 16, 1773?

 

2.  What were the Intolerable Acts?  How did the British response to the Boston Tea Party pull colonists together? 

 

3.  How could the First Continental Congress both swear its loyalty to King George III and reject the right of Parliament to regulate the colonies’ internal affairs?

 

Chapter 13


Quaker

Asylum

Emigrate

Leveller

Polyglot

Expelled


 

1.  How did Thomas Paine’s Quaker background shape his writings?  What was his judgment of slavery? What was his opinion of the rights of people to govern themselves?  Of Parliament?  Of English society?  What did he hope that his American readers would do?

 

2.  In Common Sense, what did Paine believe about:

a)  When free people in a new land would band together?

b)  When free people need to elect representatives?

c)  Why government is necessary?

d)  Kings and aristocrats?

e)  Whether Britain and Europe had been good to its people?

f)  Whether people were equal?

g)  Whether America should become independent?

 

3.  Thomas Paine asserted in 1776, “Freedom hath been hunted round the globe.  Asia, and Africa, have long expelled her – Europe regards her like a stranger, and England hath given her warning to depart.”  Look back at Chapter 1 and decide whether Paine’s argument was based in fact or was merely hyperbole (exaggeration).

 

4.  How did the communications network spread Common Sense across America?  How did Common Sense unite its readers and complete the Revolution in the minds of Americans?

 

5.  Why was the idea of independence so difficult for the English of the 18th century to understand? 

 

6.  How did the French become allies to Washington in the Revolutionary War?

 

Chapter 14


Revivalist

Abolitionists

Emancipation

Lynch

Segregation


 

1.  How did the loss of its American colonies change the way Britain ruled India?  How did it control the Overseas English in India?  How did it control the people of India?

 

2.  How did abolitionists adapt the communication techniques and networks of 18th century revolutionaries to achieve the abolition of slavery in the 19th century?

 

3.  Britain was the first nation to ban slavery.  In what ways did the abolition movement lead to the expansion of democracy in England?  In what ways did the English continue to resist real democracy? 

 

4.  What opportunities were there for (East) Indians in the British Empire? 

 

5.  How did Gandhi adapt the techniques of non-importation and of the abolitionists to win India’s freedom non-violently? 

 

6.  The United States ended slavery violently through its own bloody Civil War.  How did Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. adapt Gandhi’s non-violent tactics to win civil rights for African-Americans?  Compare Jefferson’s predictions about race relations with the reality of the civil rights movement in America.  Why do you think his predictions have not come true?

7.  Evaluate the hypothesis of this book, that “America became an independent nation because of connections that linked together people, ideas, and goods all over the world.” 
Political Cartoon Analysis Worksheet

Student Name ___________________________________________________________

Name and Page number of cartoon studied _____________________________________

People

Objects

Actions

Words

1. List people in this cartoon:

 

 

 

 

 

2.  List adjectives to explain the emotions portrayed in this cartoon:

 

 

 

 

1. List objects in this cartoon:

 

 

 

2.  List any numbers or dates which appear in this cartoon:

 

 

1. List verbs to describe actions in this cartoon:

1.  What is the title of this cartoon?

 

 

2.  Who is the cartoonist?

 

3.  List words or initials which identify people or objects in this cartoon.

 

 

1.  Are any people in this cartoon symbols?

 

2.  If so, who and what do they symbolize?

 

 

 

 

3.  Are any features exaggerated or caricatured?  If so, why?

1.  Are any objects or numbers symbols?

 

 

 

 

2.  If so, what does the symbol mean?

 

 

 

3. Is anything exaggerated?  If so, why?

1.  Are any actions exaggerated in this cartoon?  If so, why?

 

 

 

2. What is happening in this cartoon?

1.  Do any words help you understand symbols?  Which ones?

 

 

 

2.  Which words seem to be the most important to understanding this cartoon?

 

 

 

 

 

Questions

a)  Does this cartoon use humor?  If so, how (satire, puns, double-meanings, exaggeration)?

 

b) Which groups would agree with this cartoon?  Disagree? 

 

c) What ideas does this cartoon express?  What is the meaning of this cartoon?


III. Heard ‘Round the World:  Using Maps and Time Lines to Explore the American Revolution as a Global Event

 

Synopsis

 

The Real Revolution: The Global Story of American Independence explores the idea that “America became an independent nation because of connections that linked together people, ideas, and goods all over the world.”  This lesson is designed to help students understand these worldwide events in time and space.  Students will interpret an historical map, research information from time lines and maps to create a series of maps, and discuss how maps can clarify international networks, such as those discussed in the book. The lesson is most appropriate for middle school students, grades 6-8 but may also be used with high school students, grades 9-12.

 

National Curriculum Standards

 

Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning has created standards and benchmarks for language arts, math, science, geography, economics, and history. 

This lesson meets standards and benchmarks for:

United States History Standard (4th Ed.) for Era 3 – Revolution and the New Nation (1754-1820s) including benchmark:

8.      Understands the causes of the American Revolution, the ideas and interests involved in shaping the revolutionary movement, and reasons for the American victory

 

World History Standards (4th Ed.)

For Era 6 – Global Expansion and Encounter, 1450-1770 including benchmark:

      29.  Understands the economic, political, and cultural interrelations among peoples of                       Africa, Europe, and the Americas between 1500 and 1750

Historical Understanding (4th Ed.) Standard 1:  Understands and knows how to analyze chronological patterns and relationships including benchmark:

2.   Knows how to construct and interpret multiple tier time lines (e.g., a time line that

contains important social, economic, and political developments in colonial

history; a time line that compares developments in the English, French, and

Spanish colonies in North America)

 

Geography  (4th Ed.) Standard 17:  Understands how geography is used to interpret the past including benchmarks:

      1.  Knows how physical and human geographic factors have influenced major historic          events and movements (e.g., the course and outcome of battles and   wars, the

forced transport of Africans to North and South America because of  the need for         cheap labor, the profitability of the triangle trade and locations of prevailing wind       and ocean currents, the effects of different land-survey systems used in the U.S.)

      

       2.  Knows historic and current conflicts and competitions regarding the use and

allocation of resources (e.g., the conflicts between Native Americans and

colonists; conflicts between the Inuit and migrants to Alaska since 1950)

 

Time Required

 

This lesson will probably take two class periods, depending on the amount of research and map work assigned outside of class.

 

Materials Needed

     

·        The Real Revolution:  The Global Story of American Independence

Historical Maps: 

Map of the French attack on Madras, p. 14

Map of Fort Duquesne, p. 34

Map of Braddock’s Expedition, p. 37

Map of the Battle of Plassey, p. 45

  Reference Maps: 

Map of Battle Sites and Contested Regions in the Seven Years’ War,                            pp. 40-41

Map of English, French, and Spanish Land Claims in North America,                            1755,  p. 52

Map of North American Battles and Post-War Land Claims, 1763,   p. 53

Map of India, 1765, p. 110

·        Outline map transparencies with erasable markers or GIS (Geographic Information System) computer software program

 

The Lesson

 

Note to the Teacher

 

Since students will be working with maps and overlaying information, if you do not have access to a GIS, then make multiple transparencies for each class of outline maps of North America (10), India (3), and the World (7).  Also have on hand a detailed map of the British Isles.  National Geographic maps or AAA maps serve well for this purpose and may be keyed using colored sticky tabs if they are to be re-used.  

 

Lesson-Starter

1.      Ask students for different types of maps that we see regularly.  They may mention political, physical, weather, road, and street maps.  Ask if they have seen other types of maps such as: raised relief, natural resource, bird’s-eye views (especially of cities), satellite photograph/mosaic, topographic contour-line, artifact, or military maps.  Explain that they will be looking at an historic battle map. 

2.      Show a transparency or provide students with the map of the Battle of Plassey, located on p. 45      

·        Ask students to locate the compass, date, scale, title, and legend.

·        Ask what side of the map is north (top, bottom, right, or left). 

·        Ask when the earliest possible date was that the map could have been made.

·        Ask why this map was drawn and provide evidence. 

·        Ask whether the caption adds to their understanding of the map; if so, how?

3.      Ask a student to read the passage aloud on p. 44 (the last paragraph) that  describes the Battle of Plassey.  Then discuss with students if the information in the map adds to the written account of this event and if information in this map supports or contradicts information in the book, explaining their comments.  Ask them what they think the most important things are about the map and if there are questions left unanswered by the map.  Tell students that they will be making maps of their own to understand better the global connections in The Real Revolution.

Procedures

1.  Divide students into three teams: North America, the World, and India. 

 

2.  The first job the teams will have is basic information retrieval.  Using outline         map transparencies, ask teams to plot the location of the political, geographical, 

      cultural, and military sites which follow.

a.  North America Team:

·        The colonies and towns listed in The Real Revolution including:  Massachusetts (Boston), New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island (Newport), New York (Albany, New York City), New Jersey, Delaware, Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, Ambridge, Lancaster, Paxton, Pittsburgh), Maryland (Baltimore, Annapolis), Virginia (Jamestown, Williamsburg, Richmond), North Carolina, South Carolina (Charleston), and Georgia (Savannah)

·        Land features:  Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Mississippi River, Apalachicola River, St. Laurence River, Cumberland Gap, Great Lakes, Ohio River, Monongahela River, Muskingum River, Niagara River

·        Colonial Newspapers including the Newport Mercury, Boston Gazette, Pennsylvania Magazine, published in Philadelphia and Maryland Gazette, published in Annapolis; also, plot main Colonial Roads on the same map

·        The colonial territories and settlements of Ohio (Bolivar), Kentucky, Michigan (Detroit), Fort Necessity, Fort Duquesne, and approximate location of claims by the Land Companies (Virginia Loyal Land Company, Ohio Company of Virginia)

·        The location of tribes including the Shawnee, Mohawks, Ottawa, Seneca, Delaware, and Mingo; locations of Pontiac’s Rebellion

·        New France = Canada (Quebec, St. Laurence River), the Mississippi River, French Louisiana (New Orleans) and Spanish Florida (St. Augustine, Apalachicola River, Pensacola)

 

      b.  World Team:

·        Countries of England (London), Scotland, Ireland, France, Russia, Sweden, Portugal, The Netherlands, Minorca, Central Europe, Senegal, Martinique and Guadalupe, Cuba (Havana), South Africa, India, the Philippines (Manila) and the geographic features of the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean

·        Originating countries for trade items in the 18th century:  Sugar, Tobacco, Rice, Indigo, Tea, Silver, Spices, Porcelain, Silk, Cotton Cloth and Yarn, Ivory, Slaves, Manufactured Goods, Lumber, Rum, Molasses

·        Locate the battle sites (including naval engagements) worldwide for King Williams War (also known as the War of the Grand Alliance or the War of the League of Augsburg)

·        Locate the battle sites (including naval engagements) worldwide for Queen Anne’s War (also known as the War of the Spanish Succession)

·        Locate the battle sites (including naval engagements) worldwide for King George’s War (also known as the War of the Austrian Succession)

·        Locate the battle sites (including naval engagements) worldwide for the French and Indian War (also known as the Seven Years War) including Fort Necessity, Washington’s 1763 expedition, and Braddock’s Expedition of 1765

·        Locate the battle sites (including naval engagements) worldwide for The American Revolution

 

c.  India Team:

·        Provinces and Cities of Orissa, Bengal, Binar, Pondicherry, Delhi, Bombay (Mumbai), Calcutta (Kolkatta), Madras (Chennai)

·        Battle Sites of Plassey, Arcot and the geographic features of the Bay of Bengal, Himalaya Mountains, Ganges River, Mugli River, Brahmaptra River, Arabian Sea

·        Political Map of India in the 18th century

 

2.  The teams’ second task will be to coordinate the data on the maps sets they have plotted with the three timelines in The Real Revolution, pp. 222-229.  Determine whether you want the teams to work with the data they created or have the groups swap their sets of maps. Because the England/Europe Timeline is set almost entirely in England and the British Isles, students in this group will need to work with a more detailed map of that area.  Provide four transparencies to the other two teams, North America and India (for the 1600s, the 1700s, the 1800s, and the 1900s.)  Explain to students that the timeline does not always provide a geographical location so they will need to look up some of the locations in sources including The Real Revolution, or an encyclopedia, historical almanac, or online.  (Websites with useful maps are listed below in the Internet Resources segment of the Additional Resources section.) Students can decide whether they want to use a color, numerical, or alphabetical key for adding the historical events, as long as they are consistent and create a key legend.

 

3.  Provide time for each team to present their work and share it with the entire class.  Discuss whether the maps clarify the book’s explanation of:

      a) India’s trend towards decentralization as the Mogul Empire lost its authority, interrupted by the arrival of European merchant companies

      b) The rationale behind the Proclamation Line

      c) The relationship between battles and the boundaries between competing European powers

      d) The relationship between colonial communication hubs and publications influential in spreading revolutionary ideas

      e) The degree to which the world was already experiencing globalization in the 18th century

 

4.  Based on the information they have found during this map project, either discuss as a class or ask students to write a standard 5-paragraph essay evaluating the hypothesis of The Real Revolution, that “America became an independent nation because of connections that linked together people, ideas, and goods all over the world.” 

 


Assessment

 

The map activity may be evaluated on a twenty-point scale (which can be  

multiplied by five to convert to 100-point scale or for conversion to letter grades)

using the following rubric:

 

 

Excellent

Good

Fair

Not

Satisfactory

No

Work (0)

Research

(5)

(5)

Locates and uses specific  information from a wide range of sources both obvious and unusual

 

No factual errors

(4)

Locates and uses general information and examples from obvious sources

 

No factual errors

(3-2)

Locates and uses  general information from a limited number of sources 

 

Few factual errors

(1)

Research is weak, topic coverage is incomplete or unbalanced

 

May contain factual errors

(0)

 

No research

 

 

 

Map Work

(10)

(10)

Collects all necessary information

 

Creates maps that are correct, clear, informative and attractive

 

Creates a complete set of maps

 

Contributes fully to the map database

 

(9-8)

Collects nearly all necessary information

 

Creates appealing maps which have few errors

 

Creates a complete set of maps

 

Contributes largely to the map database

 

(7-6)

Collects most necessary information

 

Creates maps that are mainly correct but may lack neatness or precision

 

Creates a partial set of maps

 

Contributes

partially to the map database

 

(5-1)

Collects some information

 

Creates maps that have multiple errors, are sloppy or disorganized

 

Creates a partial set of maps

 

Contributes little to the map database

(0)

No work

Group

Skills (5)

(5)

Participates in project; shows courtesy and leadership

 

Contributes to the group but does not monopolize it

(4)

Participates effectively and works cooperatively

 

(3-2)

Does not work cooperatively, but contributes

(1)

Contributes minimally 

(0)

Does not participate or fails to cooperate with group effort


Additional Resources

Print Resources

Anderson, Fred. Crucible of War:  The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754-1766.  New York: Vintage, 2001.

Bence-Jones, Mark.  Clive of India.  London: Constable and Company, 1974.

Jaffe, Stephen H.  Who Were the Founding Fathers?: Two Hundred Years of Reinventing American History.  New York:  Henry Holt, 1996.

Marrin, Albert.  The War for Independence:  The Story of the American Revolution.  New York: Atheneum, 1988.

Weston, Beth. “Contest for Empire: 1754-1763.” Cobblestone April 1991: 21-23.

Internet Resources

American Studies @ The University of Virginia

http://xroads.virginia.edu/~MAP/map_hp.html

 

Colonial Convoy System

http://www.hist.umn.edu/~rmccaa/colonial/hacienda/sld004.htm

 

Colonial Roads

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~soden/images/Maps/Thumbnails/ColonialRoads.jpg

 

Discovery, Exploration, Colonies & Revolution Map and resource links

http://www.teacheroz.com/colonies.htm#Timelines

 

Evolution of Ohio, Ohio Company

http://new.oplin.org/evolution/index.html

 

Exploring Land, Settling Frontiers

http://www.virginiaplaces.org/settleland/index.html

 

History Department, US Military Academy, Our Atlases

http://www.dean.usma.edu/history/atlases/dawn_modern_warfare/dawn_modern_warfare_table_of_contents.html

http://www.dean.usma.edu/history/web03/atlases/colonial%20wars/colonial%20wars%20index.htm  http://www.dean.usma.edu/history/web03/atlases/american%20revolution/american%20revolution%20index.htm

 

Maritime Lanka Image Archive (Main Trade Products and Shipping Routes of the Indian Ocean Region)

http://cf.hum.uva.nl/galle/site/imagearchive.html

 

Political Maps of India through History

http://www.geocities.com/narenp/history/maps.htm

 

University of Georgia Libraries, Hargett Library Rare Map Collection

http://www.libs.uga.edu/darchive/hargrett/maps/maps.html

 

University of Texas at Austin, Perry Casteñada Library Map Collection

http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/histus.html

 

War for Empire Consortium, Maps

http://www.frenchandindianwar250.org/maps.cfm

http://www.frenchandindianwar250.org/sites.cfm

 

Interdisciplinary Activities

 

Computer Applications

Students may

a) Select one of the historical military maps in this book (or from other sources) and animate it in time-lapse, or

b) Select one of the historical military maps in this book (or from other sources) and animate the battle with real figures (including artillery, elephants and horses, where appropriate)

 

Art/Graphic Design

Some Native Americans recorded historic events by painting pictographs on buffalo hides.  Examples of hide paintings may be viewed at sites such as the Smithsonian Institution’s http://americanhistory.si.edu/kids/buffalo/abouthides.html or Wind River Indian Reservation Chief Washakie Foundation’s at http://www.windriverhistory.org/exhibits/ShoshoneArt/hides/ .  After viewing examples, create a hide painting time line for one of the tribes mentioned in The Real Revolution, perhaps covering Pontiac’s Rebellion, the Iroquois Confederacy during the period from the Albany Congress through the fall of Quebec, or the Seneca of Pennsylvania from the alliance of Tanaghrisson through the establishment of the Proclamation Line. 

 


 

IV. Why Tea?:  A Simulation Game showing the Impact of Global Economics on the Boston Tea Party and the American Revolution

 

Synopsis

 

The Real Revolution: The Global Story of American Independence explores the idea that “America became an independent nation because of connections that linked together people, ideas, and goods all over the world.”  This lesson is designed to bring the 18th century to life, providing students with visual, tactile, and intellectual understanding of 18th century mercantilism and the economic boom and bust cycle which contributed to the Boston Tea Party and the American Revolution.  Students will re-enact, through a simulation, the interconnected East India Company and Triangle Slave Trade.  This is a scripted simulation based on documented trade routes, historically accurate prices (proportionally scaled for ease of use), market forces, and events.  In contrast to typical open-ended, improvisational role-playing, this simulation is structured to guarantee a certain outcome based on history.  The lesson is most appropriate for high school students, grades 9-12, but may be used with middle school students, grades 6-8.

 

National Curriculum Standards

 

Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning has created standards and benchmarks for language arts, math, science, geography, economics, and history. 

This lesson meets standards and benchmarks for:

United States History Standard (4th Ed.) for Era 2 – Colonization and Settlement including benchmarks:

3.   Understands why the Americas attracted Europeans, why they brought enslaved                        Africans to their colonies and how Europeans struggled for control of North America and the Caribbean

5.  Understands how the values and institutions of European economic life took root            in the colonies and how slavery reshaped European and African life in the     Americas

For Era 3 – Revolution and the New Nation, 1754-1820s, including benchmark:

9.      Understands the impact of the American Revolution on politics, economy, and society

 

World History Standards (4th Ed.)

For Era 6 – Global Expansion and Encounter, 1450-1770, including benchmarks:

      27.  Understands how European society experienced political, economic, and cultural                      transformations in an age of global intercommunication between 1450 and 1750

      29.  Understands the economic, political, and cultural interrelations among peoples of                       Africa, Europe, and the Americas between 1500 and 1750

 

Historical Understanding (4th Ed.) Standard 2:  Understands the historical perspective including benchmark:

         2.   Knows how to perceive past events with historical empathy 

 

Time Required

 

This lesson will probably take two or three class periods; more the first time materials are prepared, especially if during class time.

 

Materials Needed

     

·        The Real Revolution:  The Global Story of American Independence

·        Poster or cardboard paper for signs (7)

·        Black construction paper (480  1” x 8”  strips), stapler

·        Tea bags (220)

·        Sugar packets (145)

·        Wood sticks (toothpicks, frozen confection sticks or tongue depressors) (175)

·        Six types of items to represent cash and also debt.  Paper markers (duplication sheets at the end of the lesson) may be used.  However, the class may instead use objects including different shapes of pasta (elbows, small shells, ditalini, and bows), non-sticky candies (candy-coated chocolate or fruit bits, cinnamon red-hots), non-sugar cereal (O’s, spheres, or squares), nuts in shells (pistachios, hazelnuts, and almonds), board games’ chips/money, or a variety of dried beans and peas.  Make up or use items for 3 denominations each of cash and debt. There should be 80 markers of £100, 100 markers of £1,000, and 20 markers of £10,000 for each set of cash and debt markers.

·        Fabric squares (750)

·        East India Company Stock Certificate Forms (440 forms – there are 4 forms to a page)

·        Ohio Land Company of Virginia Land Titles (416 forms – there are 4 forms to a page)

·        Receptacles to hold items and certificates as they are traded (7-12)

 

The Lesson

 

Note to the Teacher

 

This game tries to bring to life how the ability of a Bengali farmer to pay taxes could allow a Virginia squire to buy land, or slaves, or even cause a “tea party” in Boston.

 

By dividing into teams under different signs, students will be able to get a sense of the separation of the continents which were, nonetheless, linked by trade.  By using different markers, students will see and touch symbols of trade and be able to grasp more easily some of the key issues between the colonies and Great Britain.  The mercantile system was designed to exploit the raw materials and natural wealth of a colony and enrich the mother country.  For that reason, America is in debt during the simulation.  (A chronic complaint during the colonial era was the low prices for American raw materials, the high prices of English finished goods, and America’s lack of currency and coin as a colony.)   By making debt visible, they will get a sense not only of the scale of America’s mercantile debt, but also the perils of the practice of ‘buying on the margin.’

 

In the interests of streamlining a decade of history, unwieldy numbers, and the cast of characters involved in this simulation, there has been some condensation and simplification of groups, prices, and goods.  Quite a bit of effort has been made, nonetheless, to keep the numbers proportional and indicative of real historical values for various items.  To summarize:

·        The Invisible Hand is a nod to economist Adam Smith who used the phrase “the invisible hand” to refer to free market forces of supply and demand which help regulate production and prices.  It is also a mechanism to balance the simulation without introducing new characters such as Clive or a nawab.

·        Asia is a condensation of  the sugar, spice, and tin trade from Indonesia and the tea, silk, ceramic and luxury items trade from China  

·        America is simplified in several ways.  The land purchases might have been through trade goods with Native Americans, rather than from the Scottish bankers.  Prices were kept at a constant £1 for purchase from the Native Americans and £5 for resale by land companies to private landowners, but price varied considerably based on factors ranging from accessibility by water route to exhaustion of Tidewater lands by the tobacco crop. 

·        Africa – a a crucial simplification has been made in the slave trade turning it into a two-way trade based on the sugar-distillate rum (from America) exchanged for slaves (from America).  In reality it was a triangle trade of molasses (a by-product from the British colonies in the Caribbean) to rum (a distillation of rum by America) to slaves (from Africa who would work the sugar plantations of the Caribbean). 

·        Britain is a condensation of private British investors, Parliament, the royal treasury, and even British banks into matters pertaining to the East India Company.  Britain’s trade was on a scale much vaster than this simulation, and the realm was not in peril of bankruptcy because of the bursting of a single economic bubble.

 

So that the burden of the cost of material for this simulation does not fall on your pocketbook, try to get the items from your school cafeteria, through PTA or business partner donations, or by parent donation.  If this fails, you may wish to use strips of brown construction paper for the tea, white paper for the sugar, yellow paper for the wood sticks, blue paper for fabric, along with the black paper for slaves and the duplicated cash and debt markers. 

 

If you are running this simulation in several classes at the same time, remember that the amounts listed above are those required by each class and each period will need its own set of receptacles.  While you may re-use the same materials and receptacles from period to period, you will need to give the groups time to inventory their materials before class ends, and more time the next day so they can redistribute materials before play resumes. 

 

You may opt to run one round each day rather than run the entire simulation continuously until it ends.

 

 

 

Lesson-Starter

1.  This simulation is designed as a culminating activity for The Real Revolution, so 

      it is assumed that students are familiar with the events they will be re-creating.

2.   You may have students prepare materials; this is best done as an after-school    activity, perhaps for extra credit. Students will cut fabric squares, land and stock        certificates, black construction paper into strips, and portion out trade items along     with cash and debt markers.  The materials should be portioned out as follows:

·        The Invisible Hand – Cash Markers (9 of £ 1,000, 1 of £10,000)

·        The Director - 550 stock certificates,

·        Asia - 220 Teabags, 145 Sugar Packets

·        America - 175 Wood sticks (representing timber, tobacco, rice, and rum), £5,000 in Cash Markers (10 of £100, 4 of £1,000)

·        India - 750 Fabric squares

·        Great Britain - £50,000 in Cash Markers (10 of £100, 29 of £1,000, 2 of £10,000)

·        Scotland - Debt Markers (20 of £100, 60 of £1,000, 15 of £10,000), Cash Markers (One £100 Cash Marker to the Bankers, £199,900 to the Depositors in 39 of £100, 58 of £1,000, 14 of £10,000), and 415 land certificates (each representing 100 acres) 

·        Africa - Black Strips (480 representing 20 Slaves each)

3.  The teacher and/or a designated student will be “The Invisible Hand” in charge of            providing instructions at the beginning of each round of the simulation and           keeping track of the movement of merchandise, people, cash, and debt in each            round of the simulation. 

4.   Designate a student team to be “The Director.”  The Director will sit apart from             the other six groups, near the blackboard to mark the price of East India         Company stock during each round.  This group will sit with a sign illustrated by           the picture on p. 6, East India Company Headquarters, Leadenhall Street, London.       The Director group will be in charge of buying Indian goods, trading them for     

Asian products, selling the goods to Great Britain, and warehousing unsold items.  Finally, the Director will be selling British East India Company Stock and issuing stock certificates to buyers.

  5.  Involve students in pulling together this simulation.  Divide students into the        following groups (or allow them to form themselves on teams) and provide poster or cardboard so they can create a sign that includes the name and is             illustrated.  Students may wish to refer to illustrations in The Real          Revolution as             the basis for their illustrations as indicated below:

 

·        ASIA

·        GREAT BRITAIN

·        INDIA

p. 9 Madras Waves

p. 12 Chintz Trader

p. 43 Writer’s Building in Calcutta

p. 110 India 1765

·        AMERICA

p. 52 Map of English, French, and Spanish Land Claims in North America,

    1755

·        SCOTLAND

p. 145 Fordyce

·        AFRICA

 

Procedures

1.  Before the preparatory round, ask students to rearrange desk-seats into seven clusters or a six-sided version of the Meeting Room of the East India Company (illustrated on p. 72) of The Real Revolution with the Director group apart.  Students should set up signs and place receptacles with pre-counted materials next to the appropriate signs. 

 

Students need to remember that:

 

·        One teabag represents 25,000 lbs. of tea; the Director needs to keep all excess tea but England and America would have consumed the product, so they may turn in their tea to the Invisible Hand at the end of each round

·        One sugar packet represents 15,000 lbs. of sugar (when traded by America to Africa, it will represent 1,700 gallons of rum which have been distilled from molasses, the by-product of making sugar); this would have been consumed, so sugar can be turned in to the Invisible Hand at the end of each round

·        One fabric square represents a shipload of chintz and other India trade goods; these items would have been worn out, so fabric can be turned in to the Invisible Hand at the end of each round

·        One wood stick represents a shipload of American trade goods (timber, tobacco, rice); these items would have been consumed, so can be turned in to the Invisible Hand at the end of each round

·        One land certificate represents 100 acres of land

·        One stock certificate represents 1 share of East India Company stock

·        One black strip represents 20 slaves.  When students in the America group detach black strips, they should not throw them away or destroy them.  They represent African lives lost in the slave trade and should be kept, but in a separate container from those slaves who are laboring in America. (Perhaps kept in a tastefully decorated copy paper box.)

 

2.  Preparatory Round

·        The Invisible Hand will tell The Director the year is 1762 and authorizes the sale of 50 shares of British East India Company stock at £100 per share.  The Invisible Hand will direct America to buy 5 shares (£500 cash) and Britain to buy 45 shares (£4,500 cash).  The Director will provide stock certificates to America and Britain.

 

The cash balance at the end of the Preparatory round is:

The Director: £5,000 cash

America: £4,500 cash and 5 shares valued at £500 = net worth of cash and assets                                 £5,000

Great Britain: £45,500 cash and 45 shares valued at £4,500 = net worth of cash                                    and assets £50,000

Scotland:  £100 cash (remaining cash markers belong to depositors for             

            investment, not the bankers!)

 

3.  Round One

·        The Director:  Go to India; buy 20 pieces of cotton fabric for £4,000.   Go to Asia and trade 10 pieces of cotton fabric for 5 teabags and 5 packets of sugar. Go to Great Britain and sell 10 pieces of fabric, 5 packets of sugar and 4 teabags for £7,200 cash. 

·        The Invisible Hand will tell America to sell 15 wood sticks (each stick representing a shipload of timber, tobacco, or rice) to Great Britain for which it will receive £1,500 cash. 

·        The Invisible Hand will tell Great Britain to go to America and sell 5 pieces of fabric, 3 packets of sugar and 2 teabags for £6,000 cash. 

·        The Invisible Hand will tell America to buy 1,500 acres of land.  America will borrow £1,500 from Scotland (receiving £1,500 in debt markers, and 15 100-acre land certificates).  Scotland views American products, land, and slaves as collateral (real items with a cash value that can be claimed if America cannot pay back in cash).

·        The Invisible Hand will tell America to trade 5 wood sticks and 3 packets of sugar to Africa for 300 slaves (indicated by 15 strips of paper).  The average purchase price for a slave was approximately £5 and it was estimated that a slave could work 5 acres of land.  Staple the strips into a chain. 

·        The Invisible Hand will tell America to remove three links, representing 60 slaves, from the chain since 20% of the slaves purchased died on the deadly voyage from Africa to America called the Middle Passage. The average price of a slave sold at auction in America will be £50.

·        The Invisible Hand will tell The Director the year is 1763 and authorize the distribution of dividends to shareholders representing 6% of profits.  The Director will give America £20 (round up and give £100 cash).  The Director will give Britain £180 (round up and give £200 cash).

·        The Director announces the sale of 50 shares of British East India Company stock at £150 per share.  The Invisible Hand will direct America to buy 4 shares.  Scottish bankers will give America £600 cash and £600 debt markers, and America will pay the Director £600 cash and receive stock certificates. It will also direct England to buy 46 shares, for which it will pay the Director £8,000 cash and receive stock certificates. 

 

The cash balance at the end of Round 1 is:

The Director: £15,900 cash; plus 25,000 lbs. tea valued at £25,000 = net worth

     of cash and assets £40,900

India:  £4,000 cash

Britain: £35,000 cash; plus 91 shares of stock valued at £13,650 = net worth of

     cash and assets £48,650

America:  £100 cash; plus 1,500 acres of land worth at resale £7,500; plus 240                              slaves (averaging at auction £50 each) valued at £12,000; plus 9 shares of

East India company stock valued at £1,350 = £20,950 minus £2,100 debt = net   worth in cash and assets £18,850

Scotland:  £100 cash (cannot count depositors money); plus £2,100 owed by

America backed by collateral = net worth in cash and assets of £2,200

 

This is the end of Round One.  Each group should count its cash and its assets (stock, tea, land, slaves), total each separately, and report the separate numbers and the grand total to The Invisible Hand.  Who has the greatest net worth (cash plus assets)? Which group made the most cash?  Which group has the most debt? 

 

4.  Round Two  

·        The Director:  Go to India; buy 50 pieces of cotton fabric for £10,000.   Go to Asia and trade 30 pieces of cotton fabric for 15 teabags and 15 packets of sugar. Go to Great Britain and sell 20 pieces of fabric, 15 packets of sugar and 10 teabags for £13,500 cash. 

·        The Invisible Hand will tell America to go to Great Britain to sell 20 wood sticks for which it will receive £2,000 cash.

·        The Invisible Hand will tell Great Britain to go to America and sell 10 pieces of fabric, 10 packets of sugar and 5 teabags.  America will borrow £10,500 from Scotland (receiving £10,500 in cash markers and £10,500 in debt markers).  America will pay £12,500 cash to Great Britain.

·        The Invisible Hand will tell America to buy 3,000 acres of land.  America will repay £100 cash and then borrow another £3,000 from Scotland (£3,000 in debt markers and 30 100-acre land titles).

·        The Invisible Hand will tell America to trade 8 packets of sugar to Africa for 800 slaves (indicated by 40 strips of paper).  The average purchase price for a slave in Africa was approximately £5.  Staple the strips onto the chain. 

·        The Invisible Hand will tell America to remove 10 links from the chain since 25% of the slaves purchased died when merchants tried to pack slaves more tightly below the ships’ decks during the voyage from Africa to America.  The average price of an auction slave in America is £50.

·        The Invisible Hand will tell The Director the year is 1764 and authorize the distribution of dividends to shareholders representing 6% of profits.  The Director will give America £25 (rounding up to one £100 cash marker).  The Director will give Britain £200.

·        The Director announces the sale of 50 shares of British East India Company stock at £175 per share.  The Invisible Hand will direct Britain to buy all 50 shares at a cost of £8,800 cash and the Director will provide stock certificates. 

 

The cash balance at the end of Round 2 is:

The Director: £27,900 cash; plus 150,000 lbs. tea valued at £150,000 = net                      worth in cash and assets £177,900

India:  £14,000 cash

Britain: £23,200 cash; plus 141 shares of stock valued at £24,675 = net worth

in cash and assets £47,875

America:  £100 cash; plus 4,500 acres of land worth at resale £13,500; plus    

1030 slaves (averaging at auction £50 each) valued at £51,500; plus 9 shares 

of East India company stock valued at £1,575 = £66,675 minus £15,600 debt

= net worth in cash and assets £51,075

Scotland: £200 cash plus £15,600 owed by America = net worth in cash and

assets £15,800

 

This is the end of Round Two.  Each group should count their cash, total it, and report it to the simulation coordinator.  Who has the highest net worth? Who made the most cash? Which group has the highest debt?  Does America have the collateral to cover its debt?

 

5.  Round Three

·        The Director:  Go to India; buy 100 pieces of cotton fabric for £20,000.   Go to Asia and trade 50 pieces of cotton fabric for 25 teabags and 25 packets of sugar. Go to Great Britain and sell 50 pieces of fabric, 25 packets of sugar and 15 teabags for £23,000 cash. 

·        The Invisible Hand will tell Great Britain to go to America and sell 25 pieces of fabric, 12 packets of sugar and 8 teabags.  America will sell 30 wood sticks to Great Britain for which it will receive £3,000. America will borrow £19,500 from Scottish bankers (receiving £19,500 debt markers and £19,500 cash).  America will pay Great Britain £22,500 cash.

·        The Invisible Hand will tell America to buy 8,500 acres of land.  America will borrow another £8,500 (£8,500 debt markers and 85 100-acre land certificates) from Scotland, paying back £100 cash.

·        The Invisible Hand will tell America to trade 10 packets of sugar to Africa for 2,000 slaves (indicated by 100 strips of paper; each strip of paper represents 20 slaves).  The average purchase price for a slave in Africa was still approximately £5. 

·        The Invisible Hand will tell America to remove 15 links from the chain since 15% of the slaves purchased died during a calm Middle Passage.  With additional land, the demand for the 1700 slaves who have arrived causes the average price of each slave at auction in America rises to £60.

·        The Invisible Hand will tell The Director the year is 1765 and because of Clive’s victories in India, the company will receive taxes from India totaling £30,000 in additional profit.  The Director is authorized to distribute dividends to shareholders representing 6% of profits.  The Director will give America £130 (rounded down to £100 cash marker).  The Director will give Britain £2100.

·        The Director announces the sale of 50 shares of British East India Company stock at £150 per share.  The Invisible Hand will direct Britain to buy all 50 shares from the Director at a cost of £7,500.  The Director will give Britain stock certificates.

 

The cash balance at the end of Round 3 is:

The Director: £66,200 cash; plus 400,000 lbs. tea valued at £400,000 = net                             worth in cash and assets £466,200

India:  £4,000 cash

Britain: £14,200 cash; plus 191 shares of stock valued at £28,650 = net worth

            in cash and assets £42,850

America:  £100 cash; plus 13,000 acres of land worth at resale £65,000; plus

            2730 slaves (averaging at auction £60 each) valued at £163.800; plus 9

shares of East India company stock valued at £1,575 = £230,475 minus

£46,600 debt = net worth in cash and assets £183,875

 Scotland:  £300 cash plus £46,600 debt owed by America = net worth in cash             and assets £46,900

 

This is the end of Round Three.  Each group should count their cash, total it, and report it to the simulation coordinator.  Which group made the most cash? Which group has the greatest debt? Which has the most in assets?  Will it be possible to continue this simulation, or has any group gone bankrupt (unable to pay debts in cash or collateral)?

 

6.  Round  Four

·        The Director:  Go to India; buy 100 pieces of cotton fabric for the very low price of £10,000 cash, thanks to new, favorable trade agreements in the wake of Clive’s victory.   Go to Asia and trade 50 pieces of cotton fabric for 25 teabags and 25 packets of sugar. Go to Great Britain and sell 50 pieces of fabric, 25 packets of sugar and 15 teabags for £12,000. 

·        The Invisible Hand will tell Great Britain to go to America and sell 25 pieces of fabric, 12 packets of sugar and 8 teabags.  America will pay back £100 cash on their debt to Scotland and then borrow £18,500 from Scottish bankers (£18,500 cash markers and £18,500 debt markers). America will provide £18,500 in cash and 40 wood sticks in trade to pay Great Britain. 

·        The Invisible Hand will tell America to buy 8,500 acres of land.  America will borrow another £8,500 from Scotland (£8,500 debt markers and 85 100-acre land certificates).

·        The Invisible Hand will tell America to trade 10 packets of sugar to Africa for 2,000 slaves (indicated by 100 strips of paper; each strip of paper represents 20 slaves.)  The average purchase price in Africa remains £5.  Staple links to chain.  

·        The Invisible Hand will tell America to remove 35 links from the chain since 35% of the slaves purchased died when smallpox swept through ships traveling the Middle Passage.  Because the number of slaves arriving at market has declined to 1,300 while continuing land purchases have fueled demand for slave labor, the auction value of slaves in America rises to £80.

·        The Invisible Hand will tell The Director the year is 1767 and because of Clive’s victories in India, the company will receive taxes from the farmers of Bengal totaling £30,000 in additional profit (paid to the Director as £14,000 from India and £16,000 more given to India from the Invisible Hand to pay the whole tax obligation in cash.) 

·        The Director is authorized to distribute dividends to shareholders representing 10% of profits.  The Director will give America £120 (rounding down to one £100 cash marker).  The Director will give Britain £2,600.

·        The Director announces the sale of 50 shares of British East India Company stock at £230 per share, but investors will only need to pay 10% of the price at time of purchase, and will pay the balance when the stock is sold. This is called buying on the margin. The Invisible Hand will direct Britain to buy all 50 shares from the Director at a cost of £1,100 cash, owing £10,400 in debt (debt markers provided by Scotland). The Director will provide stock certificates to Britain.

 

The cash balance at the end of Round Four is:

The Director: £96,800 cash; plus 650,000 lbs. tea valued at £650,000 = net worth in          cash and assets £746,800

India:  no cash

Britain: £22,200 cash; plus 241 shares of East India Company stock valued at         £55,430 minus a stock debt of £10,400 = net worth in cash and assets £67,230

America:  £100 cash; plus 21,500 acres of land worth at resale £107,500; plus                   4030 slaves (averaging at auction £80 each) valued at £322,400; plus 9 shares of

      East India Company stock valued at £2,070 = £432,070 minus £73,600 debt =

net worth in cash and assets £358,470   

       Scotland:  £400 cash plus £84,000 American and British debt = net worth of          £84,400

 

This is the end of Round Four.  Each group should count their cash, total it, and report it to the simulation coordinator.  Who has the greatest net worth? Which group made the most cash? Which group has the greatest debt? Which has the most in assets?  Will it be possible to continue this simulation, or has any group gone bankrupt?

 

7.  Round  Five

·        The Director:  Go to India; buy 150 pieces of cotton fabric for £30,000 cash.   Go to Asia and trade 75 pieces of cotton fabric for 50 teabags and 25 packets of sugar.

·        The Invisible Hand tells Lord Townshend and Parliament (Britain) to negotiate a deal with the East India Company for annual payment of the services to the company of His Majesty’s Army in India.  The Director must pay £30,000 cash to Great Britain. The Director also must pay Clive £5,000 cash for his services (payment received by The Invisible Hand).

·        The Director:  Go to Great Britain and discover that the glut of India goods on the market has reduced demand and the price of fabric has plummeted.  Sell 75 pieces of fabric, 25 packets of sugar and 25 teabags for £21,200 cash. 

·        The Invisible Hand will tell Great Britain to go to America and sell 30 pieces of fabric, 12 packets of sugar and 8 teabags.  America will sell 50 wood sticks to Great Britain, but due to a glut of rice and timber they will only receive £2,000 cash. 

·        America will pay back £100 cash to Scotland and then borrow £23,000 from Scottish bankers (receiving £23,000 in both cash and debt markers).  Scotland still loves American collateral. America pays £25,000 cash to Britain.

·        The Invisible Hand will tell America to buy 5,000 acres.  America will borrow another £5,000 from Scotland receiving £5,000 debt markers and 50 100-acre certificates.

·        The Invisible Hand will tell America to trade 10 packets of sugar to Africa, but there is an increased demand for slaves so the cost of slaves in Africa to slave traders has increased to an average of £7 per slave.  Purchase 1,500 slaves (indicated by 75 strips of paper).  Staple the strips onto the chain. 

·        The Invisible Hand will tell America to remove 15 links from the chain since 20% of the slaves purchased died, the average mortality rate of the Middle Passage.  Because the number of slaves arriving at market has increased to 1,200 and less land was purchased causing demand for slave labor to fall, the auction value of slaves in America drops to £70.

·        The Invisible Hand will tell The Director the year is 1769 and because of excellent rice crops in India, the company will receive £30,000 taxes from the farmers of Bengal (India) totaling £30,000 in additional profit.  Despite a slight decline overall in profits the East India Company is optimistic and The Director is authorized to continue to distribute dividends to shareholders representing 10% of profits.  The Director will give America £75 (rounded up to one £100 marker). The Director will give Britain £2,100. The Director announces that dividends will rise to 12% in the next year and announces the sale of 100 shares of British East India Company stock at £230 per share, but investors will only need to pay 10% of the price at time of purchase, and will pay the balance when the stock is sold (buying on the margin). 

·        The Invisible Hand will direct Britain to buy 59 shares from the Director at a cost of £1,400 cash and the Director will provide stock certificates.  Britain will receive £12,200 in debt markers from Scotland.  It will also tell Scotland’s to buy 25 shares out of the bank’s profits; by paying the £500 cash they have and dipping into the depositors’ money where they will steal £100, they will pay Britain £600 cash on the margin, still owing £5,200. (Scotland will assign £5,400 debt markers to its bankers and the bankers will receive stock certificates.) 

·        The Invisible Hand will tell America to buy 16 shares at a cost of £400; they will borrow money from those always very helpful Scottish bankers, receiving £400 in cash and £2,700 in debt markers, paying the Director £400 and receiving stock certificates.

 

The cash balance at the end of Round 5 is:

 

The Director: £83,200 cash; plus 1,275,000 lbs. tea valued at £1,275,000 = net

      worth in cash and assets £1,358,200

India:  no cash

Britain: £54,700 cash; plus 300 shares of stock valued at £69,000 minus a stock

      debt of £22,500 = net worth in cash and assets £101,200

America:  £100 cash, plus 26,500 acres of land worth at resale £107,500; plus

       5,230 slaves (averaging at auction £70 each) valued at £366,100; plus 25

        shares of East India company stock valued at £5,750 = £479,450 minus

         £104,900 debt = net worth in cash and assets £374,550  

 Scotland: no cash; 25 shares of East India Company stock valued at £5,750     minus stock debt of £5,335; plus £127,473 debt owed by America and   Britain = net worth in assets is £127,888

 

This is the end of Round Five.  Each group should count their cash, total it, and report it to the simulation coordinator.  Who has the greatest net worth?  Which group made the most cash? Which group has the greatest debt? Which has the most in assets?  Will it be possible to continue this simulation, or has any group gone bankrupt?

 

8.  Round  Six

·        The Director:  Go to India; discover that the rice crop in Bengal has failed so raise taxes on Bengalis to 10%. Because the Indians are desperate to raise money for taxes, they lower prices for Indian goods.  Buy 150 pieces of cotton fabric for £20,000 cash.  Go to Asia and trade 100 pieces of cotton fabric for 50 teabags and 25 packets of sugar. Go to Great Britain and sell 50 pieces of fabric, 25 packets of sugar and 35 teabags for £22,500 cash. 

·        The Director must pay £30,000 cash to Great Britain for the Army.  The Director must pay Clive’s annual service fee of £5,000 cash to the Invisible Hand.

·        The Invisible Hand will tell Great Britain because a poor tobacco crop has created scarcity in supply, America will get better prices and sell 15 wood sticks to Great Britain for £3,000 cash. 

·        The Invisible Hand will tell Britain to go to America and try to sell 30 pieces of fabric, 12 packets of sugar and 18 teabags but because of the Non-Importation agreements, Britain will only sell 15 pieces of fabric, 10 packets of sugar, and 2 teabags.  America will pay back £100 cash to Scotland and then borrow £9,500 from Scottish bankers (£9,500 in both cash and debt markers) who continue to encourage Americans to borrow against their collateral of land and slaves.  America will pay Britain £12,500 cash.

·        The Invisible Hand will tell America to buy 10,000 acres of land.  America will borrow another £10,000 from Scotland receiving £10,000 debt markers and 100 100-acre land certificates.

·        The Invisible Hand will tell America to trade 10 packets of sugar to Africa, but there is a decreased demand for slaves so the price of slaves in Africa has gone down below £5 per slave.  Purchase 2,000 slaves (indicated by 100 strips of paper).  Staple the strips onto the chain. 

·        The Invisible Hand will tell America to remove 20 links from the chain since 20% of the slaves purchased died, the average mortality rate of the Middle Passage.  Because the number of slaves arriving at market has increased to 1,600 and less land was purchased causing demand for slave labor to fall, the auction value of slaves in America drops to £50.

·        The Invisible Hand will tell The Director the year is 1770 and because of drought and famine in Bengal, despite the tax increase, the company will only receive £20,000 in taxes.  The Director is still required to distribute dividends to shareholders representing 12% of profits.  The Director will give America £200 and Scotland £200 in cash dividends. The Director will give Britain £1,800 cash. The Director announces the sale of 100 shares of British East India Company stock at £200 per share, but investors will only need to pay 5% of the price at time of purchase, and will pay the balance when the stock is sold. 

·        The Invisible Hand will direct Britain to buy 50 shares at a cost of £500 owing £9,500 in debt (debt markers from Scotland).  It will also tell Scotland to buy 50 shares; they will use their £300 cash and steal £200 cash from depositors to pay the Director £500 and receive their stock certificates.  They will owe £9,700 total (assign debt markers against the banker’s account). 

 

The cash balance at the end of Round Six is:

The Director: £69,500 cash; plus 1,650,000 lbs. tea valued at £1,650,000 = net     worth in cash and assets £1,719,500

       India:  no cash

       Britain: £73,000 cash; plus 350 shares of stock valued at £70,000 but a stock debt of

£32,100 = net worth in cash and assets £110,900

       America: £200 cash; plus 36,500 acres of land worth at resale £182,500; plus       6,830   slaves (averaging at auction £50 each) valued at £341,500; plus 25 shares of East   India Company stock valued at £5,000 = £529,200 minus £124,400 debt = net     worth in cash and assets £404,800

        Scotland: no cash; but 65 shares of East India Company stock valued at                £13,000 minus debt of £15,260; plus £158,463 in debts owed by America and

Britain = net worth in cash and assets £158,203

 

This is the end of Round Six.  Each group should count their cash, total it, and report it to the simulation coordinator.  Who has the greatest net worth?  Which group made the most cash? Which group made the least cash? Which has the most in assets?  Will it be possible to continue this simulation, or has any group gone bankrupt?

 

9.  Round Seven

 

·        The Director:  Go to India; discover that the rice crop in Bengal has failed again.  Because the Indians are desperate to raise money for taxes, prices for India goods have remained low.  Buy 150 pieces of cotton fabric for £20,000.  Go to Asia and trade 100 pieces of cotton fabric for 50 teabags and 25 packets of sugar.  Go to Great Britain and sell 50 pieces of fabric, 25 packets of sugar and 44 teabags for £22,500 cash.

·        The Director must pay £30,000 cash to Great Britain for the Army.  The Director must pay the Invisible Hand Clive’s annual fee of £5,000 for his services.

·        The Invisible Hand will tell America to go to Britain.  Because of an oversupply of tobacco, America will sell 60 wood sticks to Great Britain and receive only £3,000 cash. 

·        The Invisible Hand will tell Great Britain to go to America, now importing English goods again, and sell 30 pieces of fabric, 12 packets of sugar and 22 teabags for £25,000.  America will pay back £200 cash to Scotland and then borrow £22,000 from Scottish bankers (receiving it in both cash and debt markers.) American will pay Britain £25,000 cash.

·        The Invisible Hand will tell America to buy 5,000 acres of land.  America will borrow another £5,000 from Scotland receiving debt markers and 50 100-acre land certificates.

·        The Invisible Hand will tell America to trade 10 packets of sugar to Africa. Because of the declining number of slaves near the coast and competition with other slave traders, the price of slaves in Africa has gone up.  Purchase 1,000 slaves (indicated by 50 strips of paper).  Staple the strips onto the chain. 

·        The Invisible Hand will tell America to remove 10 links from the chain since 20% of the slaves purchased died, the average mortality rate of the Middle Passage.  Because fewer slaves died on American plantations during this year, low demand at auction cancels out the lower supply and the average auction value in America of the 800 slaves who survived remains at £50.

·        The Invisible Hand will tell The Director the year is 1771 and because of drought and famine in Bengal, the company will receive no taxes.  The Director is still required to distribute dividends to shareholders representing 12% of profits.  The Director will give America £100 and Scotland £100 cash. The Director will give Britain £2300 cash. The Director announces the sale of 100 shares of British East India Company stock at £200 per share, but investors will only need to pay 5% of the price at time of purchase, and will pay the balance when the stock is sold. 

·        The Invisible Hand will direct Britain to buy 50 shares from the Director at a cost of £500 cash, receiving £9,500 in debt markers from Scotland.  It will also tell Scotland’s bankers to buy 50 shares; they will use £200 cash on hand plus the bankers will steal £300 from depositors to pay £500 cash to the Director and receive their stock certificates.  They owe £9,850 (debt markers assigned to Scotland’s bankers). 

 

The cash balance at the end of Round Seven is:

The Director: £36,500 cash; plus 1,800,000 lbs. tea valued at £1,400,000 = net                                   worth in cash and assets £1,436,500

Britain: £104,300 cash; plus 400 shares of East India Company stock valued at

            £80,000 but a stock debt of £41,600 = net worth in cash and assets

            £142,700

America:  £100 cash; plus 41,500 acres of land worth at resale £207,500; plus       7,630 slaves (averaging at auction £50 each) valued at £381,500; plus 25        shares of East India Company stock valued at £5,000 = £594,100 minus      £153,400 debt = net worth in cash and assets of £440,700 

      Scotland: no cash; 115 shares of East India Company stock valued at                      £23,000 minus debt of £23,110; plus £195,000 in debts owed by America      and Britain =  net worth in assets £194,890

 

This is the end of Round Seven.  Each group should count their cash, total it, and report it to the simulation coordinator.  Which group made the most cash? Which group made the least cash? Which has the most in assets?  Will it be possible to continue this simulation, or has any group gone bankrupt?

 

10.  Round Eight

·        The Invisible Hand announces that Britain has paid back its £41,600 stock debt to Scotland, which invests the cash in 4,150 shares at £200 per share with 5% down.  However in June 1772, East India Company Stock starts to fall.  Scotland decides to sell its 4,265 shares, but only receives £160 per share or £682,400. Needing to come up with over £100,000 quickly, Scotland goes to America and demands that it pay off its debt in cash.

·        America sells off stock but only raises £4,000.  Scotland demands America sell off land and slaves, but so many Americans are selling that there are not enough buyers and the prices collapse to £1 per acre and £7 per slave.  America cannot pay its debt and declares bankruptcy.

·        Because America cannot pay its debt to Scotland, Scotland cannot pay its debt to the East India Company.  Scotland declares bankruptcy.

·        The East India Company spends £18,000 cash in India.  It sells the goods for £19,000 to Britain, but only receives £10,000 in taxes because nearly 10 million Bengalis have starved to death in India.  The East India Company cancels its dividends to investors.  If it pays out its annual fees to Clive and Great Britain, it will no longer be able to stay in business.  The Director asks Great Britain for help.  Great Britain agrees and takes charge of Bengal and some of the assets of the East India Company, including the tea in its warehouses. 

·        Great Britain has other expenses, including the price of maintaining America, so Great Britain ships 600,000 pounds of tea (24 teabags) to America (worth an estimated £466,000).  Included in the tea shipment to America is 90,000 pounds of tea (4 teabags) destined for Boston, worth an estimated £70,000. Lord North hopes America’s tea tax will offset the North American colonies’ costs to Great Britain.

·        The Bostonians have a tea party and destroy the tea. Great Britain shuts down Boston Harbor and demands that America pay for the destroyed tea.

 

This is the end of Round Eight.  Will it be possible to continue this simulation?

 

11.      The simulation has come to an end.  Discuss as a class who profited the most in the early years of the simulation.  How did it change over time?  What was the role of debt and collateral in this game? Where did slaves and assorted trade items accumulate?  Why was buying stock on the margin so dangerous?  Ask students whether it was possible for the East India Company to survive once the Scottish bankers pulled out.  How did natural events change economic conditions?  How did boycotts impact trade?  How did supply and demand cause changes in the simulation?  What part did greed play in this simulation?  Did working with symbolic markers (black strips, sugar packets, wood sticks, etc.) show any new relationships or provide different knowledge from print information? 

Ask students to write either an essay or journal entry discussing the degree the world economy was interconnected in the years prior to the American Revolution and evaluating the validity of the hypothesis of The Real Revolution, that “America became an independent nation because of connections that linked together people, ideas, and goods all over the world.” 

 

Assessment

 

Student participation in the simulation may be evaluated on a twenty-point scale (which can be multiplied by five to convert to 100-point scale or for conversion to letter grades)

using the following rubric:

 

 

Excellent (5)

Good (4)

Fair (3-2)

Not

Satisfactory (1)

No

Work (0)

Oral Skills

Effective

– good tonal

variety, speed,

volume, clarity

Minor

Problems –

monotone,

soft, mumbling

too rapid

Numerous

speaking

problems or

 

Minimal participation

Communication

lacking

 

Wanders off

topic

Does not participate

Written Assessment

 

Locates and uses specific  historical arguments and examples

 

No factual errors

Locates and uses general historical arguments and a few examples

 

No factual errors

Locates and uses general information

 

Some factual errors

Little research beyond what happened during simulation

 

Limited understanding of arguments

 

Many factual errors

No research

Team presentation

Knowledge of information is deep 

 

Enthusiastic and persuasive re-enactment

Above average enthusiasm and  impact

 

Good knowledge level

Needs some help to keep track of history as simulation progresses

 

Little effort at staying in role

Seems lost in the history of the simulation

 

No effort at playing the role

Does not participate

Group

Skills

Leads team  but does not monopolize

 

Courteous

Effective team member

 

Courteous

Monopolizes team

Minimal contribution to team

Inappropriate comments or does not contribute

 

 

Additional Resources

Print Resources

Anderson, Fred. Crucible of War:  The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754-1766.  New York: Vintage, 2001.

Bence-Jones, Mark.  Clive of India.  London: Constable and Company, 1974.

Fabel, Robin F. A. Bombast and Broadsides:  The Lives of George Johnstone.  Tuscaloosa, Ala.: University of Alabama Press, 1987.

Faragher, John Mack. Daniel Boone:  The Life and Legend of an American Pioneer.  New York:  Henry Holt, 1992.

Foner, Eric. Tom Paine and Revolutionary America.  New York:  Oxford University Press, 1976.

Halliday, E. M. Understanding Thomas Jefferson.  New York: HarperCollins, 2001.

Isaacson, Walter.  Benjamin Franklin:  An American Life. New York:  Simon & Schuster, 2003.

Jaffe, Stephen H.  Who Were the Founding Fathers?: Two Hundred Years of Reinventing American History.  New York:  Henry Holt, 1996.

Marrin, Albert.  The War for Independence:  The Story of the American Revolution.  New York: Atheneum, 1988.

McCullough, David.  John Adams.  New York: Simon and Schuster, a Touchstone Book, 2001. 

Internet Resources

“Slave Prices and the Economy of the Lower South, 1722-1809,” by Peter C. Mancall,

Joshua L. Rosenbloom, and Thomas Weiss is a highly technical article that rewards the patient reader with extremely useful data for this period of American history.  

http://www.eh.net/Clio/Conferences/ASSA/Jan_00/rosenbloom.shtml

 

“Trade Goods on the Henrietta Marie and the Price of Men in 1699-1700,” by Corey Malcom.  Presented at Society for Historical Archaeology Conference on Underwater Archaeology, January 1998. Undersea archaeologists have been able to use artifacts and historic manifests to calculate the cost of slaves the year the ship Henrietta Marie sank, 1700.  The website brings international trade in merchandise and humans to life. http://www.melfisher.org/research%20pdf/The%20Price%20of%20Men%20in%201699-1700%20-%20Updated%20Version.pdf

 

The Slave Ship Fredensborg, another UNESCO Slave Route project, examines the wreck of a slave ship on the final leg of its triangular voyage, bearing sugar from St. Croix in 1768.  This site also shows sites and monuments in Ghana, St. Croix, and Norway that are associated with the Transatlantic Slave Trade.  It may be visited at

http://www.unesco.no/fredensborg/index.htm.

 

 “Bristol Slavery – Plantation Life.”  This online exhibition of the City of Bristol is a British city’s examination of its links to the Transatlantic Slave Trade http://www.headleypark.bristol.sch.uk/slavery/tradetriangle/plantationlife.htm

 

The individual commodities of sugar, rice, cotton, tobacco, and indigo and their relationship to slavery in America may be investigated at the Slavery in America website at: http://www.slaveryinamerica.org/

 

The National Park Service features a ready to use lesson plan, “When Rice Was King” at:

http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/3rice/3rice.htm .  It also has very good information on the cotton culture at: Beneath These Waters, Chapter 14:  From Cradle to Grave, by Sharyn Kane and Richard Keeton

http://www.cr.nps.gov/seac/beneathweb/ch14.htm

 

The Atlantic Slave Trade and Slave Life in the Americas:  A Visual Record, by Jerome S. Handler and Michael L. Tuite, Jr. provides additional information about cotton and slavery: http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/

 

The African American Experience at Stratford:  1782, by Jeanne Calhoun.  This website provides insight into the life of the Virginia squires, slaves’ labor in the tobacco fields, and the background of Revolutionary leaders Richard Henry Lee and Lighthorse Harry Lee, as well as the Civil War general Robert E. Lee. 

http://www.stratfordhall.org/africa.html?HISTORY

 

The Library of Congress’ American Memory Collection features over 7 million online digital documents.  It is a rich resource for a wide variety of documents including films, photographs, sheet music, WPA interviews, and government documents.  American Memory’s homepage is:  http://memory.loc.gov/.

 

 “A Documentary History of the Cinnamon Bay Plantation 1718-1917,” an archaeological investigation of a historic sugar plantation on St. John, Virgin Islands, compiled by David W. Knight, studies a Danish Caribbean sugar plantation that operated from the colonial era through the collapse of the sugar cane economy. http://www.friendsvinp.org/archive/Cinnamon/Coverpage.htm 

 

Indigo, as well as cotton, is intertwined with slavery in America and servitude in India.  An interesting article is “Chemistry Triggered the First Civil Disobedience Movement in India,” by Gopalpur Nagendrappa:

http://www.ias.ac.in/resonance/Mar2003/pdf/Mar2003p42-48.pdf

 

Interdisciplinary Activities

 

Economics

 

Students may select one of the following activities:

a)  Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations, written in 1776, is considered one of the most influential books ever written and is the founding document of the social science of economics.  Students may wish to read the entire book or focus on Smith’s analysis of the failure of the East India Company. 

b)  The Real Revolution focuses on the British East India Company, but the Dutch East India Company’s history is also fascinating.  Students interested in the 2004 tsunami’s economic devastation of the region ringing the Indian Ocean may find Simon Winchester’s Krakatoa:  The Day the World Exploded, August 27, 1883 fascinating reading, learning about everything from plate tectonics to how the Portuguese were supplanted in mercantile competition for Indonesia by the Dutch. 

c)  The merchants who carried tea to Boston Harbor that was destroyed by the Sons of Liberty still produce what is called “Boston Harbour Tea.”  On the sides of their tea tins, Davison and Newman show how the merchants responded to the destruction of their tea (in this case a second “tea party” in March 1774, three months after the original Boston Tea Party)—they petitioned King George III for damages to16 chests of tea valued at £472 2s10d.  (An image of the petition can be found at A Web of English History, The Age of George III at http://www.historyhome.co.uk/c-eight/america/davison.htm and a transcript of the full petition follows at the end of this lesson.)  Ask students to calculate the modern value of the claim.  A helpful website, the Current Value of Old Money, is located at http://www.ex.ac.uk/~RDavies/arian/current/howmuch.html.

 

Graphic Design

 

Students may select one of the following activities:

a) Students will investigate the cultivation, production and history of cotton and indigo in both India and America.  Many historic chintz designs can be found in books and internet sites about textiles.  Students may 1) create a portfolio of either historic chintz designs on Indian fabrics or indigo designs on Indian fabrics or 2) create a portfolio of their own designs suitable for printing on cotton fabrics. 

b)  During the bicentennial of the American Revolution the U.S. Postal Service issued a block of four commemorative stamps which together depicted the Boston Tea Party.  Examine a copy of this design, and then create a design for a proposed stamp for the 250th anniversary of the Boston Tea Party in 2023.

c)   At least two tea chests which landed in Boston Harbor have survived.  Examine the samples from the Daughters of the American Revolution at http://members.aol.com/massdar/Massachusetts_DAR/chest.htm and the Boston Tea Party Ship and Museum at http://www.bostonteapartyship.com/pressrelease.asp.  The former has a Chinese design painted on it, the other a game board marked on one side.  Create a design for a modern container of Boston Harbor tea. 

 

Drama and Film Studies

 

The pre-Revolutionary and Revolutionary eras have been depicted in film fictionally on a number of occasions.   Preview to determine if a film is appropriate to your district standards and your students’ maturity.  Some examples include:

 

French and Indian Wars

Allegheny Uprising (1939)

Drums Along the Mohawk (1939)

The Last of the Mohicans (1936) and also (1992), Rated: R

Northwest Passage (1940)

The Unconquered (1947)

 

 

The Boston Tea Party

America (D.W.Griffith, silent, 1924)

The Howards of Virginia (1940)

Johnny Tremain (1957)

 

The American Revolution

April Morning (1988)

George Washington (1984)

Jefferson in Paris (1995), Rated: PG-13

John Paul Jones (1959)

The Broken Chain (1993)

The Devil’s Disciple (1959)

The Patriot (2000), Rated: R

The Crossing (1999)

1776 (1972) Rated: PG

 

Ask students to select one of these films and watch it.  As they watch, they should consider whether costuming, set, and scenic detail add to the performances. Students should also try to determine the film director’s point of view or biases, noting examples as they watch the film.  After they have finished the film, ask them to write on one of the following prompts:     

a)      In war, the enemy is often demonized.  Give examples from the film you watched which either support or contradict this statement.

b)      Native Americans have been presented in film both sympathetically and unsympathetically.  Is the depiction in the film you watched realistic or does it create stereotypes?  Provide examples from the film to support your argument.

c)      Based on the global connections you have read about in The Real Revolution, is the depiction of history in this film accurate or inaccurate, thorough or superficial?

d)      Is the job of the director of a fictional film set in a historical period more difficult than that of the director of a documentary film, or not?  Explain.

 

Computer

 

Students interested in gaming may wish to try to turn the classroom simulation into a computer simulation game.  Some elements they may wish to add to the current simulation might include:

a)  Native Americans – Rather than simply going into debt with the Scots to get land, America could trade fabric squares with Native Americans for land certificates. 

b)  Asia – Asia could be subdivided into Indonesia and China.  The Director would take fabric from India to Indonesia to get sugar and then continue to China for tea.

c)  The existing simulation only includes one non-importation effort by America (over the Townshend duties), but there was also a boycott in 1765 over the Stamp Act which could be factored into Round 3.

d)  American trade was impacted by poorer tobacco crops 1765-1769 followed by five years of bumper crops in tobacco beginning in 1770.  Tobacco prices began to sag in 1771 and went down further in 1772 as the market was glutted.  These variables have not been fully factored in the existing simulation, which could be extended to 1776.

e)  Africa – The Triangle Trade in slavery is been condensed in this simulation but could be expanded to include the Caribbean (molasses), America (rum substituted for this simulation’s sugar) and Africa (slaves).

e)  Because British trade shipped too much merchandise in 1771-1772, prices for British goods dropped in America.  This has not been factored in the existing simulation which could be extended to 1776. 


  

 

East India Company Stock Certificate Form

 



 

 

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The Petition of Davison and Newman to King George III,

Claiming compensation for Chests of their Tea thrown into the

Harbor

Of Boston, Massachusetts,

By Persons disguised as Indians,

On March 7th, 1774

 

To the King’s most radiant Majesty –

The humble petition of Peregrine Cust, James Bradley, Charles Harris, Robert Thornton, William Greenwood, Markhouse Davison, and Abraham Newman, all of the City of London, Merchants

 

Sheweth

            That your Petitioners, Markhouse Davison and Abraham Newman have for many years past dealt and traded in buying large quantities of Tea at the India Company’s Sales in London and selling the same by Wholesale and also in shipping and sending the same to the British Colonies in America for sale there.

            That your petitioners in December, one thousand seven hundred and seventy three, in the ordinary course of their Trade shipped on board a Brigantine or Vessel called the “Fortune,” commanded by Benjamin Gorsham, then lying in the River Thames bound for Boston in the Province of Massachusett’s Bay in North America sixteen chests of Tea consigned to Henry Floyd, a Merchant there.

            That the said Ship arrived in the Harbour of Boston – Sunday the sixth of March, one thousand seven hundred and seventy four, laden with goods and Merchandize of various kinds (amongst which was the said Sixteen Chests of Tea) upon Freight and about Eight o’clock in the Evening of the next Day being the Seventh of March the said ship being then at a wharf of the Harbour of Boston aforesaid a great Number of Persons – all of whom were disguised and dressed and talking like Indians armed with Axes – and Hatchets with Force and Violence entered on Board the said vessel and broke open the Hatches and proceeded to rummage the Hold and hoisted out Twenty-Eight Chests of Tea, amongst which was the before mentioned sixteen Chests of Tea, upon the deck of the said Vessel and there with Hatchets and Axes broke open the said chests and emptied and threw the Tea into the Water whereby the same was wholly lost and destroyed.

            That in December, one thousand, seven hundred and seventy three, your Petitioners Peregrine Cust, James Bradley, Charles Harris, Robert Thornton and William Greenwood underwrote a policy on the said Sixteen Chests of Tea, for several sums of money amounting together to four hundred and eighty Pounds which by reason of the Loss of said Tea they have paid to your Petitioners Markhouse Davison and Abraham Newman the Assured in said Policy.

            That the said Tea with the charges and Premium of Insurance thereon was the Value of four hundred and seventy two Pounds, two shillings, and ten pence Sterling as by the Insurance thereof made and sent therewith dated the Twenty third day of December,  one thousand, seven hundred and seventy three there appears.

            That your Petitioners are prepared with paper Evidence fully to prove the Matters aforesaid.

            That by an Act of Parliament passed in the present Session entitled “An Act to discontinue in such manner and for such time as are therein mentioned – the landing or discharging of lading or shipping of Goods, Wares, and Merchandize at the Town and within the Harbour of Boston in the Province of Massachusett’s Bay in North America” your majesty is empowered to assign and appoint the Extent Bounds and Limits of said Port or Harbour and also to appoint Quays or Wharfs within the said Harbour for the landing – discharging lading, shipping Goods in case it shall appear to your Majesty that full satisfaction hat been made by the inhabitants of said Town of Boston to the East India Company for the Damages sustained by the said Company by the Destruction of the Goods sent to Boston.  And when it shall be properly certified to your Majesty that reasonable Satisfaction hath been made to others who suffered by the Riots and Insurrections at Boston in November and December one thousand seven hundred and seventy three and January one thousand seven hundred and seventy four.

            That at the time of passing the said Act Advice had not been received in England of the Riots and Disorders committed in Boston in March one thousand seven hundred and seventy four and therefore the same could not be particularly therein taken Notice of.  But nevertheless your Petitioners humbly conceive that by the said Act it was intended that no such Port, Harbour, Quays, or Wharfs should be appointed at or for the said Town of Boston until it should appear to your Majesty that reasonable Satisfaction had been made to all persons who had suffered by the Riots and Insurrection at Boston.

            Wherefore, and in regard that the Violence used in destroying the said Sixteen Chests of Tea was not provoked by your Petitioners, and did not proceed from any Resentment conceived against them, or against their manner of trading, but was intended and used by ill affected Persons as an opposition to and defiance of your Majesty’s Government and Authority,

 

Your Petitioners most humbly pray

That your Majesty will be graciously

Pleased to give your Petitioners such

Relief as their Case may require and

Such as to your Majesty may seem just.

 

And your Petitioners shall ever pray,

 

P. Cust

Wm. Greenwood

Charles Harris

Davison & Newman

Robt. Thornton

Ja. Bradley