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Witch-Hunt: Mysteries of the Salem Witch Trials

                                            Study Guide

 

Introduction

 

This study guide is designed to enhance students’ mastery of key content and skills in social studies, language arts, and other disciplines through examination of the Salem Witch Trials. It is intended to be used in conjunction with Witch-Hunt: Mysteries of the Salem Witch Trials by Sibert Award-winning author Marc Aronson, along with other materials. The lessons will compliment curriculum in the social studies, particularly early colonial American history and McCarthyism, but also language arts, focusing on Arthur Miller’s portrait of the psychology of witch-hunts, The Crucible. Each lesson is designed with multiple objectives in mind, to make the most efficient use of teacher’s time.

The guide consists of six lesson plans drawn from topics investigated in Witch-Hunt. It is organized around six guiding questions:

·      What was the world-view of the accusers and their contemporaries?

·      What was the relationship between individuals and authority in Puritan society?

·      Why did the accusers do it?

·      What is moral courage and what forms did it take during the Salem Witch Trials? (This activity may be used in conjunction with the John Fitzgerald Kennedy Library Foundation Profiles in Courage high school essay contest.)

·      How were good, evil, and witchcraft understood by the accusers and their contemporaries?

·      How does the historian’s work differ from the dramatist’s work in writing about the Salem Witch Trials?

 

Within each lesson plan you will find all or most of the following information:

·      Synopsis of lesson

·      National curriculum standards met by this lesson (based on Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning standards and benchmarks, www.mcrel.org)

·      Time required

·      Materials needed

·      The lesson (with lesson-starter and lesson procedures)

·      Additional resources

·      Interdisciplinary activities

 

Although the study guide is designed so that the six lesson plans provide an integrated course of studies, it is not expected that students will complete all the listed activities. Teachers may assign selected activities to their classes, allow students to choose an activity for themselves, or set up independent learning centers with the material needed for suggested activities. Also, teachers may wish to give students the opportunity to earn extra credit by completing some activities as independent work. Recognizing the time and accountability constraints facing classroom teachers, we encourage you to select and adapt the Witch-Hunt activities that best meet your students’ needs and abilities, curriculum requirements, and teaching style.

This study guide was written by Jean M. West, an education consultant in Port Orange, Florida.


I. What was the world-view of the accusers and their contemporaries?

 

Synopsis

 

The world-view of people living in 1692 was fundamentally different from our world-view today. Contemporary understanding of the physical world through astronomy, biology, chemistry, geology, geography, meteorology and physics would boggle the minds of the people of 17th century Salem who saw the physical world through theological assumptions. The modern view of the role of human beings under both civil and divine law is far more relativist and secular than in late 1600s. This lesson provides the opportunity for teachers across the curriculum to work in collaboration, enabling students to research and prepare a multimedia series of displays and presentations to gain understanding of the world-view of 1692. The lesson is designed for grades 9-12, although it may be readily adapted by middle school teams, grades 6-8.

 

National Curriculum Standards

 

Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning has created standards and benchmarks for language arts, math, science, geography, economics, and history.

This lesson meets Level IV (Grades 9-12) standards and benchmarks for:

United States History Standards (3rd Ed.) for Era 2 – Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763) including benchmarks:

2.     Understands how gender, property ownership, religion, and legal status affected political rights (e.g., that women were not allowed to vote even if they held property and met religious requirements)

3.     Understands characteristics of religious development in colonial America (e.g., the presence of diverse religious groups and their contributions to religious freedom; the political and religious influence of the Great Awakening; the major tenets of Puritanism and its legacy in American society; the dissension of Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams, and Puritan objections to their ideas and behavior)

 

Historical Understanding (3rd Ed.) Standard 2: Understands the historical perspective

including benchmark:

2. Analyzes the influences specific ideas and beliefs had on a period of history and

specifies how events might have been different in the absence of those ideas and

beliefs.

 

Language Arts (4th Ed.) Standard 4: Gathers and uses information for research purposes including benchmark:

2. Uses a variety of print and electronic sources to gather information for research

topics (e.g., news sources such as magazines, radio, television, newspapers;

government publications; microfiche; telephone information services; databases;

field studies; speeches; technical documents; periodicals; Internet)

 

Science (4th Ed.) Standard 11: Understands the nature of scientific knowledge

including benchmarks:

1. Knows ways in which science distinguishes itself from other ways of knowing

and from other bodies of knowledge (e.g., use of empirical standards, logical

arguments, skepticism)

3. Understands how scientific knowledge changes and accumulates over time (e.g.,

all scientific knowledge is subject to change as new knowledge becomes available;

some scientific ideas are incomplete and opportunity exists in these areas for new

advances; theories are continually tested, revised, and occasionally discarded)

4. Knows that from time to time, major shifts occur in the scientific view of how the

world works, but usually the changes that take place in the body of scientific

knowledge are small modifications of prior knowledge

 

This lesson also meets these Level III (Grades 6-8) standards and benchmarks.

United States History Standards (3rd Ed.) for Era 2 – Colonization and Settlement

(1585-1763) including benchmarks:

1. Understands ideas that influenced religious and political aspects of colonial

America (e.g., how the growth of individualism contributed to participatory

government, challenged inherited ideas of hierarchy, and affected the ideal of

community; whether political rights in colonial society reflected democratic

ideas; how Benjamin Franklin’s thirteen virtues in his Autobiography compare

to Puritan ideas and values)

5. Understands the role of religion in the English colonies (e.g., the evolution of

religious freedom, treatment of religious dissenters such as Anne Hutchinson,

the concept of the separation of church and state)

 

Language Arts (4th Ed.) Standard 4: Gathers and uses information for research

purposes including benchmark:

4. Uses a variety of resource materials to gather information for research topics

(e.g. magazines, newspapers, dictionaries, schedules, journals, phone

directories, globes, atlases, almanacs)

 

Science (4th Ed.) Standard 11: Understands the nature of scientific knowledge

including benchmark:

3. Knows that all scientific ideas are tentative and subject to change and

improvement in principle, but for most core ideas in science, there is much

experimental and observational confirmation

 

Time Required

 

This lesson will probably take three class periods, depending on the amount of planning and research conducted outside of class and the length of student presentations.

 

Materials Needed

Witch-Hunt: Mysteries of the Salem Witch Trials (Introduction, pp. 14-19; Prologue, pp. 25-39; Chapter I, pp. 44-46; Chapter II, pp. 69-70; Chapter III, pp. 82-88; Chapter X, pp. 203-205)

 

The Lesson

 

Lesson-Starter

1. Ask students to read “Skittering Shadows,” pp. 14-16.

 

2. In the world of 1692 people generally believed God was the “single clearest ‘cause’ for any effect in the world,” although the Devil or Satan and forces of evil also were responsible for some of the problems in the visible world. Reason or science might also provide explanations. Discuss as a class how people of the 17th century might have explained:

·      A deadly disease

·      A freeze that killed the spring crops

·      A blue-eyed child born to brown-eyed parents

 

3. Discuss in the class how we as modern people try to recognize truth, falsehood and superstition. Ask students whether the “seen” or visible world seems more real than the “unseen” or invisible world, such as that in the cosmos or on the cellular or atomic level. Ask students to consider whether science today explains “reality” to our satisfaction as well as faith did for the people of 1692.

 

Procedures

 

1. Teachers of social studies (History, Geography, Psychology, Sociology and Government) and the physical sciences (Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Earth Sciences/Environmental Sciences, Astronomy) and comparative religions (if an elective) will be coordinating assignments during this lesson. Participating teachers should divide topics among their students. One suggested division is to create the following seven groups: Geography, Astronomy, Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Psychology, and Civil & Religious Law.

 

2. Each group should research to find answers to questions about the 17th century world-view of their discipline, for example:

 

·      Geography, meteorology and geology: Students may look at maps of the time period, what was known and unknown about the form, climate and geography of world. They should look at estimated human population in this period and perceptions of villages as islands of civilization in the wilderness (especially true of Old World country folk who might never travel farther than twenty miles from their nameless village and have no bird’s-eye or map perception of their world), terra incognita, and the vastness of the oceans. They should consider what had been learned by sailors, explorers, and the scholastic community as well as immigrants to the New World such as the Puritans, but evaluate how widespread this knowledge was in 1692. Students should note what information is no longer accepted as correct. Students may create a display or computer slide show to illustrate the world of 1692.

·      Astronomy: Students will examine what was known about the solar system and universe, cosmic events such as eclipses and comets, and the degree to which Copernicus and Galileo were accepted not only by the scholastic community but also by the average country folk. Students will also examine the Puritan theological assumptions that there was a physical heaven and hell and their location. Students may use annotated models, drawings, computer slide-shows, and other illustrative material to explain how the universe seemed to people in 1692.

·      Biology: Students will examine the status of knowledge about human anatomy and cell pathology including theories about the “four humors,” microbes, inherited biological traits (particularly in animal and plant husbandry) and their impact on medicines and physician practices in 1692. Students may create displays, skits, or computer slide-shows to illustrate the prevailing knowledge of the time.

·      Chemistry: Students will examine how Aristotelian and phlogiston theories of matter colored the understanding of the world and the degree to which earlier atomic theories and Boyle’s theories were accepted by the educated community and peasantry. Information may be presented in the form of posters, displays, or demonstrations.

·      Physics: Students will examine what 17th century people knew about motion, electricity, magnetism, gravity, light, and energy and create displays or demonstrations to illustrate the understanding of people of an earlier era.

·      Psychology: Students will examine what people in the 17th century believed about brain function, the mind-body connection, the role of environment in human behavior, and differences in human perception. They will also look at the theological issues of free-will and predestination as understood by the Puritans, and the physical reality of Satan and God since these influenced their views of human behavior. They may present the information in the form of skits, a debate, or chart.

·      Civil and Religious (Canon) Law: Students should examine how Puritan theology with its views of original sin and God’s selection of saints (sinners and saints, unsaved and saved) interacted with the presumption of innocence under civil law. They will also examine the common law tradition of categorizing all the English subjects as protected under the law or as “out-laws” (or wolf’s-heads, sub-humans which could be hunted) impacted legal proceedings and what we consider ‘due process’ today. Student have the option to examine Roman Catholic or Anglican Canon law (religious) to determine how categorizing people either as Christians, converts or damned (Muslims, Jews, Indians, witches, heretics) impacted the legal process from accusation and arrest, to interrogation and indictment, and finally trial and punishment. Students may wish to create charts, or a skit to compare and contrast the role of individuals before the law in the past and present.

 

3. The teams may plan and create multidisciplinary, multi-media displays and demonstrations as suggested above to share their research. They may present their findings within their individual discipline’s class, but if the school schedule will accommodate it, ideally they could present to all participating classes.

 

Assessment

 

1. Once students have completed sharing their findings, ask them to express, from the point-of-view of a person of the 17th century, their beliefs about “My World, 1692.” They may present the world-view in either written form (non-fiction, or fictional narrative, poem, or drama) or illustrated form (captioned exhibit board, model, artwork, or computer-slide show).

2. These may be evaluated on a twenty-point scale (which may be multiplied by five

to convert to 100-point scale or for conversion to letter grades) using the following rubric:


 

 

 

Excellent (10)

Good (9-8)

Fair (7-6)

Not

Satisfactory (5-1)

No

Work (0)

Research

 

Locates and uses specific information from a wide range of sources both obvious and unusual

 

Addresses the impact of theology on the world-view of 1692

 

No factual errors

Locates and uses general information and examples from obvious sources

 

Addresses the impact of theology on the world-view of 1692

 

No factual errors

Locates and uses general information from a limited number of sources

 

Weak assessment of the impact of theology on the world-view of 1692

 

No factual errors

Research is weak, topic coverage is incomplete or unbalanced

 

Little effort to assess the impact of theology on the world-view of 1692

 

May contain factual errors

No research

 

 

Project presentation (Audio or Visual display or performance or demonstration)

Well balanced, thorough presentation of topic information

 

Appealing project or performance showing originality

 

Media enhances understanding of topic

 

Captions or introductory explanations are excellent, either audible and clear or well-written and informative

Generally balanced, complete presentation of topic information

 

Appealing project or performance

 

Media generally supports topic

 

Captions are useful and generally conform to language rules; or, introductory explanations are useful and audible

Presentation of information is not complete for the topic

 

Appealing project or performance

 

Media may not always be appropriate to topic

 

Captions missing in some cases or not clear and may contain errors in language usage; or, introductory explanations are not helpful or are so soft, rapid, or mumbled that they cannot be heard

Presentation of data is incomplete or missing in some aspects of topic or very vague

 

Project is sloppy or disorganized

 

Media does not tie in with topic

 

Little or no captioning or introductory explanations, which may be unclear or irrelevant, and exhibit many errors in language usage

No project

 


Additional Resources

 

Books

 

Bremer, Francis J. The Puritan Experiment: New England Society from Bradford to Edwards (Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1995).

This is a useful survey book for teachers, an informed and fast-moving review of key

events, people, and ideas.

 

Burke, James. Connections. (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1978).

Burke, James. The Day the Universe Changed. (Boston: Little, Brown and

Company, 1985).

 

These two well-illustrated companion volumes to Public Television series provide a

great deal of information about historical changes in scientific theory and knowledge

of the physical world.

 

Deetz, James. In Small Things Forgotten: The Archeology of Early American Life. (New York: Anchor Books, 1977; revised edition 1996).

 

“Don’t read what we have written; look at what we have done.” Deetz urges

historians to take in account the artifacts left in the archeological record which

provide insight into the early colonial mind. Especially useful are Chapter 2, “The

Anglo-American Past;” Chapter 6, “Small Things Remembered,” and Chapter 9,

“Small Things Forgotten” (which is Chapter 8 in the 1977 edition).

 

Howarth, David. 1066: The Year of the Conquest. (New York: Dorset Press, 1977).

 

The first few pages of the first chapter, pp. 11-13, recreate the mind’s-eye map of the

world of most of the peasantry not only of 1066, but also six hundred years later.

 

Manchester, William. A World Lit Only by Fire: The Medieval Mind and the Renaissance, Portrait of an Age. (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1992).

 

This is an excellent reference for students trying to grasp the shift to the modern

world-view. Of general use are Chapter I, “The Medieval Mind,” pp. 3-28; and

selections from Chapter II, pp.45-66, 95-107. Additional material on Astronomy,

Biology, Physics, Geography and Civil/Religious Law are located on pp. 88-94,

116-117, 131-202, 228-233, 236-238, and 290-296.

 

Miller, Perry. The New England Mind: The Seventeenth Century. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1954).

 

Although Perry Miller is dense reading, he explains the Puritans in unrivaled depth.

 

Stout, Harry S. The New England Soul: Preaching and Religious Culture in Colonial New England. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986).

 

Internet Resources

 

Edwards, Jonathan. Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God. Sermon preached at Enfield, CT on July 8, 1741. http://www.jonathanedwards.com/sermons/Warnings/sinners.htm

 

The Medieval Technology Page – Population Estimates. http://scholar.chem.nyu.edu/tekpages/population.html

 

Population of Europe, 17th Century http://homepage.mac.com/msb/163x/faqs/eurÞpop.html

 

Puritanism in New England http://guweb2.gonzaga.edu/faculty/campbell/enl310/purdef.htm


 

II. What was the relationship between individuals and authority in Puritan society?

 

Synopsis

 

The interplay between individuals and authority is central to the Salem Witch Trials. Like many elements in the saga of the witch-hunts, the interplay was shaded by the status of the individuals (farmers, merchants, children, women, slaves) and by the nature of the authority—religious, civil, or economic. This lesson is designed to help students investigate the Puritan’s beliefs regarding authority and the individual and how they shaped the events of 1692. The lesson is designed for older high school students, grades 11 and 12; although it may be adapted to use with grades 9-10 if it is part of their curriculum.

 

National Curriculum Standards

 

Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning has created standards and benchmarks for language arts, math, science, geography, economics, and history.

This lesson meets Level IV (Grades 9-12) standards and benchmarks for:

United States History Standards (3rd Ed.) for Era 2 – Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763) including benchmarks:

2. Understands how gender, property ownership, religion, and legal status affected

political rights (e.g., that women were not allowed to vote even if they held

property and met religious requirements)

3. Understands characteristics of religious development in colonial America (e.g., the

     presence of diverse religious groups and their contributions to religious freedom;

the political and religious influence of the Great Awakening; the major tenets of

Puritanism and its legacy in American society; the dissension of Anne Hutchinson

and Roger Williams, and Puritan objections to their ideas and behavior)

4.     Understands the characteristics of the social structure of colonial America (e.g., the property rights of single, married, and widowed women; public education in the New England colonies and how it differed from the southern colonies, different patterns of family live; different ideas among diverse religious groups, social classes, and cultures; different roles and status of men and women)

5.     Understands the similarities and differences in colonial concepts of community (e.g., Puritan’s covenant community, Chesapeake colonial emphasis on individualism)

 

Language Arts (4th Ed.) Standard 6: Uses skills and strategies to understand and interpret a variety of literary texts including benchmarks:

1. Uses reading skills and strategies to understand a variety of literary texts (e.g., fiction, nonfiction, myths, poems, biographies, autobiographies, science fiction, supernatural tales, satires, parodies, plays, American literature, British literature, world and ancient literature)

8. Understands relationships between literature and its historical period, culture, and society (e.g., influence of historical context on form, style, and point of view; influence of literature on political events; social influences on author’s description of characters, plot, and setting; how writers represent and reveal their cultural traditions)

 

Time Required

 

This lesson will probably take two class periods, depending on the amount of outside research time assigned.

 

Materials Needed

 

Witch-Hunt: Mysteries of the Salem Witch Trials

 

Amazing Grace, music by William Walker 1835 and lyric stanzas 1-3, 5-6 by John

Newton (1725-1807)

 

Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God, sermon by Jonathan Edwards on July 8,

      1741 at Enfield, CT

 

Individuals and Authorities Worksheet

 

The Lesson

 

Lesson-Starter

 

1. Explain to students that they will be studying the Salem Witch Trials of 1692,

but that they are going to listen to two selections from about 50 years later and

decide whether they are Puritan or not.

2. Play Amazing Grace. If you only have an instrumental version, print out the

lyrics at http://ingeb.org/spiritua/amazingg.html.

3. Read aloud the following conclusion of Jonathan Edwards’ sermon, Sinners in

the Hands of an Angry God, preached at Enfield, Connecticut on July 8,

1741. The full text may be seen at

http://www.jonathanedwards.com/sermons/Warnings/sinners.htm

 

Are there not many here who have lived long in the world, and are not to this day born again? and so are aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and have done nothing ever since they have lived, but treasure up wrath against the day of wrath? Oh, sirs, your case, in an especial manner, is extremely dangerous. Your guilt and hardness of heart is extremely great. Do you not see how generally persons of your years are passed over and left, in the present remarkable and wonderful dispensation of God's mercy? You had need to consider yourselves, and awake thoroughly out of sleep. You cannot bear the fierceness and wrath of the infinite God.-And you, young men, and young women, will you neglect this precious season which you now enjoy, when so many others of your age are renouncing all youthful vanities, and flocking to Christ? You especially have now an extraordinary opportunity; but if you neglect it, it will soon be with you as with those persons who spent all the precious days of youth in sin, and are now come to such a dreadful pass in blindness and hardness. And you, children, who are unconverted, do not you know that you are going down to hell, to bear the dreadful wrath of that God, who is now angry with you every day and every night? Will you be content to be the children of the devil, when so many other children in the land are converted, and are become the holy and happy children of the King of kings?

 

And let every one that is yet out of Christ, and hanging over the pit of hell, whether they be old men and women, or middle aged, or young people, or little children, now harken to the loud calls of God's word and providence. This acceptable year of the Lord, a day of such great favours to some, will doubtless be a day of as remarkable vengeance to others. Men's hearts harden, and their guilt increases apace at such a day as this, if they neglect their souls; and never was there so great danger of such persons being given up to hardness of heart and blindness of mind. God seems now to be hastily gathering in his elect in all parts of the land; and probably the greater part of adult persons that ever shall be saved, will be brought in now in a little time, and that it will be as it was on the great out-pouring of the Spirit upon the Jews in the apostles' days; the election will obtain, and the rest will be blinded. If this should be the case with you, you will eternally curse this day, and will curse the day that ever you was born, to see such a season of the pouring out of God's Spirit, and will wish that you had died and gone to hell before you had seen it.

 

      4. Poll students, then tell them that Puritans wrote both Amazing Grace and

Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God. Discuss whether the tone is different

in the two pieces and, if so, why. Explain that we often overlook the Puritans’

joyous side, even though people around the world relate to Amazing Grace.

 

Procedures

 

1. Ask students to read Witch-Hunt, “Prologue—Boston, 1688: The Possession

of the Goodwin Children,” pp. 23-39. Also direct them to examine the

Timeline of Milestones in Puritan History, pp. 229-233.

2. Divide students into groups to research the Puritan’s beliefs on the following

topics, so they can better understand the role a Puritan believed the individual

played in the Great Chain of Being. In addition to the pages listed below from

Witch-Hunt, students may find information in sources listed under Additional

Resources and the full text of Jonathan Edward’s sermon mentioned above.

·      God as all-seeing, all-knowing, and all-powerful (omnipresent, omniscient, omnipotent)

·      Irresistible Grace or Salvation (pp. 44-45)

·      Free Will

·      The Great Chain of Being

·      Covenants and Congregations (pp. 26-27, 45-46, 184-187, 191-194, and 200-201)

·      Personal Responsibility (pp. 44-45, 119, 159-163, 175-181, and 204)

·      Suffering and hopelessness (like the Biblical Job) as test of faith (pp. 27-28, 33-35, 44-45, 95)

·      Religious minorities [Massachusetts was not a homogenous Puritan settlement—there were Separatists (Pilgrims), Quakers, Baptists, Catholics, Jews, Anglicans, and other European sects along with the religion of the indigenous peoples] pp. 27, 30, 39, 49, 69-70, and 204; also see Willison.

·      Children [laws, arguments over infant baptism and the Halfway Covenant, and Biblical naming patterns shed light on adult views of children] pp. 7-14, 26-27, 30-31, 39, 99-101, 107-109, 148, 200, 202, and 215; also see Hoffner and Naming Children in Early New England

·      Slavery pp. 64-68, 71-72, 81-88, 202; also see Breslaw

·      Woman pp. 7-14, 77-78, 107-109, 152, 211; also see Karlsen and Norton

·      Wealth and Work Ethic pp. 46, 48-49, 121, 146-147, 168-171; also see Boyer and Nissenbaum

·      Political Power and Divine Right pp. 16-19, 105, 125-126, 130-134, 165-168, 181-184, 203; also see Hall

3. Provide each student with a copy of the Individuals and Authorities Worksheet

(at the end of this lesson). Ask students to share their findings on the topics

above and complete the worksheet, filling in the blanks on the chart, plotting

the Puritans on a continuum, and answering the questions in section C.

 

Assessment

 

1. Discuss as a class whether the Puritans shape modern American values such as:

·      Time is precious

·      Educate and inform yourself

·      Work is good

·      Government can’t be trusted

·      Be true to your conscience

·      In God We Trust

·      We are all equal before God

·      You cannon worship both God and money

·      Modesty is best

·      We are a “cittie upon a hill,” (an idea transformed from Puritan desire to be in full view open to the judgment of all to being considered an example to the world)

2. Ask students to write an essay detailing how our founding documents (the Declaration of Independence, Constitution, and Bill of Rights) and the premises of modern government programs (from the Homestead Act and New Deal to the present) preserve and perpetuate Puritan values.

3. To evaluate the students’ essay, use the following twenty-point assessment rubric. Multiply by five to convert to a 100-point scale to calculate letter grades.

 

 

 

 

Excellent

 

Good

 

Fair

 

Not

Satisfactory

 

No

Work

Historical Comprehension

 

10 points

(10) Written assignment demonstrates excellent historical

·       analysis of information

·       command of facts

·       synthesis of information

·       interpretation

(9-8) Written assignment demonstrates good historical

·       analysis of information

·       command of facts

·       synthesis of information

·       interpretation

(7-6) Written assignment shows fair historical

·       analysis of information

·       command of facts

·       synthesis of information

·       interpretation

(5-1) Written assignment shows little historical

·       analysis of information

·       command of facts

·       synthesis of information

·      interpretation

0

Technical Writing Skills

 

10 points

(10) Written assignment shows excellent

·       compositional structure

·       sentence structure and variety

·       vocabulary use

·       grammar, spelling, punctuation

(9-8) Written assignment shows good

·       compositional structure

·       sentence structure and variety

·       vocabulary use

·       grammar, spelling, punctuation

(7-6) Written assignment shows adequate

·       compositional structure

·       sentence structure and variety

·       vocabulary use

·       grammar, spelling, punctuation

(5-1) Written assignment shows inadequate

·       compositional structure

·       sentence structure and variety

·       vocabulary use

·       grammar, spelling, punctuation

0

 

 

Additional Resources

Books

Boyer, Paul and Stephen Nissenbaum. Salem Possessed: The Social Origins of Witch Craft (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1974).

Breslaw, Elaine G. Tituba, Reluctant Witch of Salem: Devilish Indians and Puritan Fantasies (New York: New York University Press, 1995).

Hall, David D. Worlds of Wonder, Days of Judgment: Popular Religious Belief in Early New England (New York: Knopf, 1989).

Hoffer, Peter Charles. The Salem Witchcraft Trials: A Legal History (Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1997).

Karlsen, Carl. The Devil in the Shape of a Woman: Witchcraft in Colonial New England (New York: Norton, 1987; reprinted, 1998).

Norton, Mary Beth. In the Devil’s Snare: The Salem Witchcraft Crisis of 1692 (New York: Knopf, 2002).

Willison, George F. Saints and Strangers. (New York: Reynal & Hitchcock, 1945).

 

Internet Resources

 

Amazing Grace, http://ingeb.org/spiritua/amazingg.html.

 

Naming Children in Early New England, http://lonestar.texas.net/~mseifert/puritan14.html.

 

Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God, by Jonathan Edwards,

http://www.jonathanedwards.com/sermons/Warnings/sinners.htm

 

Interdisciplinary Activities

Music – Music has often been a medium for dissent by individuals against authority (p. 201). In addition to the obvious 1960s counter-culture musicians of rock and roll and folk music (Bob Dylan, Pete Seeger, Joan Baez, Odetta, Marvin Gaye, John Lennon), consider music dissenters around the world, both past and present (Bob Marley, Víctor Jara and Miriam Makeba to Public Enemy, Ani diFranco, Le Tigre, Sergei Prokofiev, and Ludwig von Beethoven). Select examples of music by dissenters and create a tape, disc, or digital collection of your selections with “notes” patterned after those on CD covers. Include available information about the composer and/or lyricist, date of composition, country of origin, instruments used, and additional historical information and musical analysis.

Comparative Religions – Examine in depth the differences in the 17th-19th centuries between the Puritans and one or more of their contemporaries: the Pilgrims (Separatists), Baptists, Anabaptists, or Quakers. You may also compare the Puritans’ beliefs and practices with those of their modern successors, the Congregationalists. Alternately, investigate the early American experience of religious groups in other colonies such as Maryland’s Catholics, Rhode Island’s Jews and Pennsylvania’s Quakers. Another route of inquiry would be to compare the organization and beliefs of Judaism, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, or another world religion with historic Puritanism.

Government – Study the series of Supreme Court decisions involving the First Amendment religion clauses, both free exercise (Reynolds v. U.S., 1878) and establishment (Minersville v. Gobitis, 1940; West Virginia v. Barnette, 1943; Everson v. Board of Education of Ewing Township, NJ, 1947; or Engel v. Vitale, 1962).

Geography – Create a keyed map or series of maps showing the location of religious groups in the thirteen colonies, indicating the most populous groups in each colony.

 


Individuals and Authorities Worksheet

Name:

Section A.

 

Roman Catholic

Church of England

Puritans (Congregationalists)

Quaker (Society of Friends)

Who interprets the word of God?

Pope

Archbishop of Canterbury

 

Individual who receives divine spirit

Who selects church leader?

College of Cardinals

King or Queen of England

 

Monthly Meeting members

Does this church aim to be universal?

Yes

No

 

No

Can salvation be earned?

Yes, by prayer and indulgences

No, it’s a gift of Divine Grace

 

No, it’s a gift of Divine Grace

How do you join the church?

Infant baptism

Infant baptism

 

Individual revelation, accepted into meeting

Is Satan real?

Yes

Yes

 

Yes

Can an individual choose by free will to be evil?

Yes

Yes

 

Yes

Do individuals answer to God for their actions?

Yes

Yes

 

Yes

Is the service and Bible in English?

No

Yes

 

Yes

Do women participate equally?

No, although some abbesses were powerful

No, Queen Elizabeth I notwithstanding

 

Yes

Is suffering a test of God?

Yes

Yes

 

Yes

Can you enslave a member of your religion?

No

Yes

 

Yes

How do you treat non-believers in your community?

Holy Inquisition

Prison, fines, execution

 

Declare a member “out of unity” or deny meeting membership

 

Section B.

Mark on the continuum below where the Church of England, Puritans, Quakers, and Roman Catholics fit in relationship to each other and the role of the individual and authority. Use the key: E = Church of England, P = Puritans, Q= Quakers, R=Roman Catholics.

Section C.

1. Were all individuals equal in the eyes of God, according to the Puritan’s interpretation of the Bible? How could a minister like Parris own a slave, like Tituba?

2. In Puritan society, were children treated any differently than adults? Explain.

3. Were the Puritans “kill-joys” or was it an issue of conscience to reject Christmas celebrations, gaudy clothes, and elaborate churches? Explain.

4. In Puritan churches, did women and children have the same status as respected men? Explain.

5. Who were more respected in Puritan society, “visible saints” or wealthy people? Explain.

6. Was the individual or the community more important to the Puritan leadership during the Salem Witch Trials? Explain.

 


III. Why did the accusers do it?

 

Synopsis

 

At the heart of the story of the Salem Witch Trials is the central question: Why did the accusers do it? Many of the accusers were teenagers, close to your students in age. Some Salem teenagers may have knowingly acted in evil ways while others may have had the moral courage to resist acting in evil ways. This lesson is designed to use material in Witch-Hunt: Mysteries of the Salem Witch Trials to examine the many theories about the motivations of the accusers of Salem in 1692 and consider whether these same forces act upon people today. The lesson is most appropriate for high school students, grades 9-12.

National Curriculum Standards

 

Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning has created standards and benchmarks for language arts, math, science, geography, economics, and history.

This lesson meets Level IV (Grades 9-12) standards and benchmarks for:

United States History Standard (3rd Ed.) for Era 2 – Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763) including benchmarks:

2. Understands how gender, property ownership, religion, and legal status affected

political rights (e.g., that women were not allowed to vote even if they held

property and met religious requirements)

3. Understands characteristics of religious development in colonial America (e.g., the

     presence of diverse religious groups and their contributions to religious freedom;

the political and religious influence of the Great Awakening; the major tenets of

Puritanism and its legacy in American society; the dissension of Anne Hutchinson

and Roger Williams, and Puritan objections to their ideas and behavior)

4. Understands the characteristics of the social structure of colonial America (e.g.,

the property rights of single, married, and widowed women; public education in

the New England colonies and how it differed from the southern colonies,

different patterns of family live; different ideas among diverse religious groups,

social classes, and cultures; different roles and status of men and women)

5. Understands the similarities and differences in colonial concepts of community

(e.g., Puritan’s covenant community, Chesapeake colonial emphasis on

individualism)

 

Historical Understanding (3rd Ed.) Standard 2: Understands the historical perspective including benchmarks:

1. Analyzes the values held by specific people who influenced history and the role

their values played in influencing history.

2. Analyzes the influences specific ideas and beliefs had on a period of history and

specifies how events might have been different in the absence of those ideas and

beliefs.

 

Language Arts (4th Ed.) Standard 4: Gathers and uses information for research purposes including benchmarks:

3. Uses a variety of primary sources to gather information for research topics

4. Uses a variety of criteria to evaluate the validity and reliability of primary and

secondary source information (e.g., the motives, credibility, and perspectives of

the author; date of publication; use of logic, propaganda, bias, and language;

comprehensiveness of evidence)

 

Time Required

 

This lesson will probably take two class periods, depending on the amount of reading and written work assign assigned outside of class.

Materials Needed

 

Witch-Hunt: Mysteries of the Salem Witch Trials

Witch-Hunt Theory Worksheet (optional)

The Lesson

 

Lesson-Starter

1.     Ask students to read the Note to the Reader (pp. x-xiv.)

2.     Read aloud the statement from p. xiii, “A group of individuals acted as a pack to attack and destroy others.” Ask students for examples of this type of behavior today (hazing, bullying, gang activities, prisoner abuse are recent examples from the news.)

3.     Discuss as a class whether these are cases where individuals “may have tasted evil and liked it,” as scholar Bernard Rosenthal has suggested was the case in Salem (pp. 198-199), or not.

 

Procedures

1.     Return to p. xiii and read the following passage to the students: “Why did the accusers do it? Why did they twitch and scream and bleed in court? Why did they cause nineteen people to be hanged and a total of perhaps twenty-five to die?”

2.     Explain to students that they will be divided into teams to read Witch-Hunt: Mysteries of the Salem Witch Trials and to investigate one of the theories that have been suggested to answer these questions. The teams may be assigned or allowed to select one of the following:

·      Rebellion against Puritan severity and hypocrisy (Prologue, pp. 23-39; Chapter 1, pp. 43-49 and 52-54; Chapter 4, pp. 99-100; Epilogue, pp. 210-212 and 215)

·      Greed and economic factors (Chapter 1, pp. 47-54; Chapter 5, pp. 114-122; Chapter 7, pp. 143-147; Chapter 8, pp. 168-171; Chapter 10, pp. 191-205; Epilogue, p. 213)

·      Settling grudges between families (Chapter 1, pp. 43-54; Chapter 4, pp. 91-101; Chapter 5, pp. 114-122; Chapter 6, p. 138; Chapter 7, pp. 147-153; Chapter 8, pp. 163-167; Chapter 10, pp. 191-205; Epilogue, p. 212)

·      Biological explanations (encephalitis lethargica or ergot poisoning (Epilogue, pp. 215-218)

·      Adolescent hysteria or mob/gang mentality (Chapter 4, pp. 91-101; Chapter 5, pp. 105-122; Chapter 6, pp. 125-139; Chapter 8, pp. 157-163; Chapter 9, pp. 175-181; Chapter 10, pp. 191-205)

·      A game that got out of hand (Chapter 2, pp. 57-73; Chapter 3, pp. 77-88; Chapter 4, pp. 91-101; Chapter 5, pp. 105-113; Chapter 10, pp. 191-205)

·      Wickedness of individual accusers (Chapter 4, pp. 91-101; Chapter 5, pp. 105-122; Chapter 8, pp. 157-163; Chapter 10, pp. 191-205; Epilogue, p. 215)

3.     Each team should read the appropriate sections of Witch-Hunt, referring to the related Notes and Comments (pp. 234-255) and related books cited in the Bibliography (pp. 256-260) to:

a.     Identify what information supports the theory

b.     Identify what information contradicts the theory

c.     Evaluate the overall persuasiveness of the theory

4.     Students may take notes on a piece of paper with two columns headed “Supports Theory” and “Contradicts Theory” or the Witch-Hunt Theory Worksheet (at the end of the lesson).

5.     Students may either:

a.     Present their findings in a conventional oral report, putting their theory on a transparency, flip chart, poster, or computer slide show

OR

b.     Participate in a class debate about the theories, offering arguments or counter arguments to decide if the class can come to a consensus about which theory or explanation for the accusers’ behavior is most persuasive.

6.     In either case, conclude the lesson by discussing if these same forces from 1692 are in operation today creating problems which have consequences beyond the (young) people involved in them, and whether we have become any better at preventing “witch-hunts.”

 

Assessment

 

1.     Ask each student to write an essay answering the question: Based on your understanding of the motives behind the accusers during the Salem Witch Trials, do you see humans as essentially good or evil beings?

2.     The students’ papers may be evaluated on a twenty-point scale (which may be multiplied by five to convert to 100-point scale or for conversion to letter grades) using the following rubric:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Excellent

 

Good

 

Fair

 

Not

Satisfactory

 

No

Work

Historical Comprehension

 

10 points

(10) Written assignment demonstrates excellent historical

·       analysis of information

·       command of facts

·       synthesis of information

·       interpretation

(9-8) Written assignment demonstrates good historical

·       analysis of information

·       command of facts

·       synthesis of information

·       interpretation

(7-6) Written assignment shows fair historical

·       analysis of information

·       command of facts

·       synthesis of information

·       interpretation

(5-1) Written assignment shows little historical

·       analysis of information

·       command of facts

·       synthesis of information

·      interpretation

0

Technical Writing Skills

 

10 points

(10) Written assignment shows excellent

·       compositional structure

·       sentence structure and variety

·       vocabulary use

·       grammar, spelling, punctuation

(9-8) Written assignment shows good

·       compositional structure

·       sentence structure and variety

·       vocabulary use

·       grammar, spelling, punctuation

(7-6) Written assignment shows adequate

·       compositional structure

·       sentence structure and variety

·       vocabulary use

·       grammar, spelling, punctuation

(5-1) Written assignment shows inadequate

·       compositional structure

·       sentence structure and variety

·       vocabulary use

·       grammar, spelling, punctuation

0

 

 

Additional Resources

Books

Boyer, Paul and Stephen Nissenbaum. Salem Possessed: The Social Origins of Witch Craft. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1974).

Breslaw, Elaine G. Tituba, Reluctant Witch of Salem: Devilish Indians and Puritan Fantasies. (New York: New York University Press, 1995).

Carlson, Laurie Winn. A Fever in Salem: A New Interpretation of the New England Witch Trials. (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1999).

Demos, John Putnam. Entertaining Satan: Witchcraft and the Culture of Early New England. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982).

Hoffer, Peter Charles. The Salem Witchcraft Trials: A Legal History. (Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1997).

Karlsen, Carl. The Devil in the Shape of a Woman: Witchcraft in Colonial New England. (New York: Norton, 1987; reprinted, 1998).

Norton, Mary Beth. In the Devil’s Snare: The Salem Witchcraft Crisis of 1692. (New York: Knopf, 2002).

Rosenthal, Bernard. Salem Story: Reading the Witch Trials of 1692. (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1993).

Internet Resources

Salem Witch Trials Documentary Archive and Transcription Project, http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/salem/witchcraft/home.html

DiscoverySchool.com’s Salem Witch Trials: The World behind the Hysteria, http://school.discovery.com/schooladventures/salemwitchtrials

Religious Movements Homepage: The Salem Witch Trials, http://religiousmovements.lib.virginia.edu//nrms/salem.html

17th Century Colonial New England, http://www.17thc.us/

Famous American Trials: The Salem Witchcraft Trials – 1692, http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/salem/SALEM.HTM

 

Interdisciplinary Activities

 

Geography: Create a map of Salem Town and Salem Village properties in 1692 with color key indicating the accused and the accusers. What patterns emerge from a map that might not emerge from just reading text accounts of the Salem Witch Trials?

 

U.S. Government or History: Examine other “witch-hunts” in U.S. history, such as the communist hunting by the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) and Joseph McCarthy and his Senate Committee on Government Operations. Examine the motives behind the committees, the progress of the “witch-hunt,” those who displayed moral courage during the accusatory phase, and the point where the witch-hunt collapses.

 

Biology or Health: Collect a list of archaic disease names and the descriptions provided by contemporaries of symptoms and then evaluate how useful primary sources may be in providing clues to medical researchers. ArtMedicine uses paintings from art history as a medical resource: http://www.iacd.oas.org/Educa135/Espinel2000/espinel2000.htm.

 

Sociology and Psychology: Examine theories about hysteria and gang/mob behavior offered by leading theorists such as Sigmund Freud, Gustave Le Bon, Wilfred Bion, and Irving Janis (groupthink).

Economics: From the beginning of New England’s settlement, colonists were under pressure to make personal profits and also to make the colony profitable under the mercantile system. Some of the economic imperatives in Massachusetts were examined in the PBS program, Colonial House at http://www.pbs.org/wnet/colonialhouse/. Investigate the sources of wealth available to the residents of Salem including timber, fish, fur, as well as farming and commerce.

 

 


Witch-Hunt Theory Worksheet

 

Names(s) of team members: __________________________________

The theory we are investigating is: The Salem Witch Trials were motivated by: _______________________

 

Facts Supporting the Theory

Facts Contradicting Theory

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Team Consensus about investigated theory:

1. Does this theory for the motives of the accusers persuade you, or not?

 

2. What fact or interpretation most influenced you as you evaluated this theory and why?

IV. What forms did moral courage take during the Salem Witch Trials?

 

Synopsis

 

In the face of the Salem Witch Trials, some individuals displayed moral courage declaring innocence or recanting confessions in the face of certain death, challenging the court with petitions, actions, and even silence. Students will consider what courage is by examining some of the individuals in Witch-Hunt to learn what for their display of courage took and attempt to identify the source of that courage. Students will also relate the examples from Salem to other courageous individuals of the past and present. Students may also write an essay meeting the criteria for the annual high school essay contest sponsored by the John Fitzgerald Kennedy Library Foundation about political leaders who demonstrate outstanding courage for possible submission. This lesson is designed for students in middle school (grades 6-8) but is readily adapted to high school (grades 9-12).

 

National Curriculum Standards

 

Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning has created standards and benchmarks for language arts, math, science, geography, economics, and history.

This lesson meets these Level III (Grades 6-8) standards and benchmarks.

United States History Standards (3rd Ed.) for Era 2 – Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763) including benchmark:

5. Understands the role of religion in the English colonies (e.g., the evolution of

religious freedom, treatment of religious dissenters such as Anne Hutchinson, the

concept of the separation of church and state)

 

Historical Understanding (3rd Ed.) Standard 2: Understands the historical perspective

including benchmark:

1. Understands that specific individuals and the values those individuals held had an

impact on history.

 

Language Arts (4th Ed.) Standard 4: Gathers and uses information for research purposes including benchmarks:

6. Organizes information and ideas from multiple sources in systematic ways (e.g.,

time lines, outlines, notes, graphic representations)

7. Writes research papers (e.g., separates information into major components based

on a set of criteria, examines critical relationships between and among elements

of a research topic, addresses different perspectives on a topic, achieves balance

between research information and original ideas, integrates a variety of

information into a whole, draws conclusions)

 

 

This lesson also meets Level IV (Grades 9-12) standards and benchmarks for:

United States History Standards (3rd Ed.) for Era 2 – Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763) including benchmark:

3. Understands characteristics of religious development in colonial America (e.g., the

     presence of diverse religious groups and their contributions to religious freedom;

the political and religious influence of the Great Awakening; the major tenets of

Puritanism and its legacy in American society; the dissension of Anne Hutchinson

and Roger Williams, and Puritan objections to their ideas and behavior)

 

Language Arts (4th Ed.) Standard 4: Gathers and uses information for research purposes including benchmarks:

4. Uses a variety of criteria to evaluate the validity and reliability of primary and

secondary source information (e.g., the motives, credibility, and perspectives of

the author; date of publication; use of logic, propaganda, bias, and language;

comprehensiveness of evidence)

5. Synthesizes information from multiple research studies to draw conclusions that

go beyond those found in any of the individual studies.

 

Historical Understanding (3rd Ed.) Standard 2: Understands the historical perspective

including benchmarks:

10. Understands how the past affects our private lives and society in general

11. Knows how to p0erceive past events with historical empathy

 

Time Required

 

This lesson probably will take one class period, depending on the amount of outside research and writing required.

 

Materials Needed

 

Witch-Hunt: Mysteries of the Salem Witch Trials (Chapter IX, “That No More Innocent Blood Be Shed,” pp. 175-187).

 

Profiles in Courage, by John F. Kennedy (Chapter 11, “The Meaning of Courage.”)

 

The Lesson

 

Lesson-Starter

1. Read the following lines from the conclusion of John F. Kennedy’s Pulitzer-prize winning book on political courage, Profiles in Courage: “In whatever arena of life one may meet the challenge of courage, whatever may be the sacrifices he faces if he follows his conscience – the loss of his friends, his fortune, his contentment, even the esteem of his fellow men – each man must decide for himself the course he will follow. The stories of past courage can define that ingredient – they can teach, they can offer hope, they can provide inspiration. But they cannot supply courage itself. For this, each man must look into his own soul.”

 

2. Ask students to define courage. Discuss whether there is any special personal quality, time period, place or circumstance that makes an individual courageous.

 

3. Brainstorm historical and contemporary examples of people who have spoken out or acted courageously, putting themselves outside the safety of the norm and conformity. Consider corporate and government “whistle-blowers,” students who have revealed athletic drug use or test-rigging, guards such as Joseph Darby at Abu Ghraib and inmates who have exposed prisoner abuse, as well historical figures such as the individuals blacklisted during the McCarthy era.

 

Procedures

1. With scores imprisoned and over two dozen dead, the Salem Witch Trial period is better recalled for mob hysteria rather than moral courage, yet there were examples:

·      Recanted Confessors – Sarah Church and Martha Jacobs, pp. 159-162

·      Declarations of Innocence – George Burroughs (pp. 143-153); Martha Corey (pp. 95-99, 105-111, 192); Rebecca Nurse (pp. 114-119, 133, 163-165)

·      Petitioners – Mary Easty (pp. 175-181); Sarah Cloyce (pp. 177-178)

·      Stood Mute – Giles Corey

·      Letter – Thomas Brattle (pp. 181-182)

·      Public deeds – Nathaniel Saltonstall (pp. 131-132, 165); Samuel Willard (pp. 171, 182, 186); Cotton Mather (p. 133); Increase Mather (p. 181); Samuel Sewall (pp. 184, 186-187)

2. Ask students to select one of these individuals and to determine a) how they manifested their courage, b) the choices the individual made during the course of the witch-hunt until taking a stand, and c) the source or sources of their courage.

3. Discuss as a class the moral courage displayed by individuals of 1692 Salem and Massachusetts. Was there an individual act that became the tipping-point, which broke the hold of the accusers, or was it the accumulation of acts together that broke the spell?

 

Assessment

 

1. Students should put their findings about the individual they have research into the form of a first-person piece of writing composed from the point-of-view of the person they have investigated. Examples might include an interior monologue (stream of consciousness), letter, journal entry, gallows declaration, last testament, confession, prayer, proclamation, petition, sermon, op-ed article, or poem.

 

2. Allow students the opportunity to share their completed writings.

 

3. The students’ writings can be evaluated on a 25-point scale (which may be multiplied by four to convert to 100-point scale or for conversion to letter grades) using the following rubric:

 

 

 

 

Excellent

 

Good

 

Fair

 

Not

Satisfactory

 

No

Work

 

Historical Research and Accuracy

 

(5)

(5) Written assignment demonstrates

·       Extensive research

·       Many details

·       No factual errors or anachronisms

(4) Written assignment demonstrates

·       Complete research

·       Some details

·       No factual errors or anachronisms

(3-2) Written assignment shows

·       Minimal research

·       Generalized information

·       May contain some errors

(1) Written assignment shows

·       Little or no research

·       No new information

·       Many factual errors

0

Technical Writing Skills

 

(10)

(10) Written assignment shows excellent

·       compositional structure

·       sentence structure and variety

·       vocabulary use

·       grammar, spelling, punctuation

(9-8) Written assignment shows good

·       compositional structure

·       sentence structure and variety

·       vocabulary use

·       grammar, spelling, punctuation

(7-5) Written assignment shows adequate

·       compositional structure

·       sentence structure and variety

·       vocabulary use

·       grammar, spelling, punctuation

(4-1) Written assignment shows inadequate

·       compositional structure

·       sentence structure and variety

·       vocabulary use

·       grammar, spelling, punctuation

0

Felicity of style and presentation

 

(10)

 

 

(10) Composition

  • Engages reader
  • Shows high originality
  • Shows empathy with historical figures

 

 

(9-8) Composition is above average in

  • Engaging reader
  • originality
  • showing empathy with historical figures

 

 

(7-5) Composition is adequate in

  • Holding reader interest
  • originality
  • empathy with historical figures

 

 

(4-1) Composition demonstrates attempt to fulfill assignment with little or no success

 

0

 

 

 

 

Additional Resources

 

Books

 

Boyer, Paul and Stephen Nissenbaum. Salem Possessed: The Social Origins of Witch Craft. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1974).

Burr, George Lincoln, ed. Narratives of the Witchcraft Cases, 1648-1706. (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1914; reprint, New York: Barnes and Noble, 1968).

 

Gragg, Larry. The Salem Witch Crisis. (New York: Praeger, 1992).

 

Kennedy, John F. Profiles in Courage—Memorial Edition. (New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1964).

 

Rosenthal, Bernard. Salem Story: Reading the Witch Trials of 1692. (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1993).

 

Internet Resources

 

The John Fitzgerald Kennedy Library Foundation, Profiles in Courage Award and Essay Contest,         

http://www.jfklibrary.org/picaÞinformation.html

http://www.jfkcontest.org/infoÞeligibility.asp

 

Salem Witch Trials Documentary Archive and Transcription Project, http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/salem/witchcraft/home.html

17th Century Colonial New England, http://www.17thc.us/

Famous American Trials: The Salem Witchcraft Trials – 1692, http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/salem/SALEM.HTM

 

Interdisciplinary Activities

 

Government – While a U.S. Senator, John F. Kennedy wrote Profiles in Courage, a collection of portraits of the political courage of selected U.S. Senators. “The Meaning of Courage,” Chapter 11, and also Robert F. Kennedy’s foreword to the memorial edition (following the assassination of President Kennedy) further refine the definition of political courage. Since 1989, the John Fitzgerald Kennedy Library Foundation has presented the Profiles in Courage award to political leaders who demonstrate outstanding courage. They also hold an essay contest for students in high school (grades 9-12). Using the foundation criteria below, prepare an essay for submission to the contest.

“In less than 1,000 words, write an essay that is original, creative, and that uses a variety of sources such as newspaper articles, books, and/or personal interviews to address one of the following two topics:

A current elected public official in the United States, who is acting courageously to

address a political issue at the local, state, national, or international level.

OR

An elected public official in the United States since 1956 who has acted courageously to address a

political issue at the local, state, national, or international level.”

 

Art – Each year, recognize a member of the school or community who has demonstrated courage in some manner by creating a “Portrait in Courage” for display in the school awards case or other appropriate public venue.

 

Language Arts or Film Studies – Define “courage” and then create an annotated list

of your “top twenty” favorite depictions of courage, explaining why the piece of

writing or film effectively illustrates your perception of courage. You may consider

everything from the Cowardly Lion in the Wizard of Oz to Tennyson’s Charge of the

Light Brigade.


V. How were good, evil, and witchcraft understood by the accusers and their contemporaries?

 

Synopsis

 

Witch-Hunt: Mysteries of the Salem Witch Trials investigates in depth the Puritan belief that good and evil both physically walk the world testing people’s souls. Students will examine the remnants of these beliefs in the present and go back to look at the 17th century folk and theological basis of the Puritans’ beliefs. This lesson is designed for middle school students, grades 6-8, but may be adapted to upper elementary or high school.

 

National Curriculum Standards

 

Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning has created standards and benchmarks for language arts, math, science, geography, economics, and history.

This lesson meets Level III (Grades 7-8) standards and benchmarks for:

United States History Standards (3rd Ed.) for Era 2 – Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763) including benchmarks:

1.     Understands ideas that influenced religious and political aspects of colonial America (e.g., how the growth of individualism contributed to participatory government, challenged inherited ideas of hierarchy, and affected the ideal of community; whether political rights in colonial society reflected democratic ideas; how Benjamin Franklin’s thirteen virtues in his Autobiography compare to Puritan ideas and values)

5. Understands the role of religion in the English colonies (e.g., the evolution of

religious freedom, treatment of religious dissenters such as Anne Hutchinson, the

concept of the separation of church and state)

 

Language Arts (4th Ed.) Standard 4: Gathers and uses information for research purposes including benchmark:

6. Organizes information and ideas from multiple sources in systematic ways (e.g.,

time lines, outlines, notes, graphic representations)

 

This lesson also addresses the following Level II (Grades 5-6) standards and benchmarks for:

 

United States History Standards (3rd Ed.) for Era 2 – Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763) including benchmark:

3. Understands Puritanism in colonial America (e.g., how Puritanism shaped New England communities, the changes in Puritanism during the 17th century, opposition to King James I, why Puritans came to America, the Puritan family structure)

 

This lesson can also address the following Level IV (Grades 9-12) benchmark:

 

Historical Understanding (3rd Ed.) Standard 2: Understands the historical perspective including benchmark:

1. Analyzes the values held by specific people who influenced history and the role

their values played in influencing history.

 

Time Required

 

This lesson will probably take two class periods, depending on the amount of outside research time assigned.

 

Materials Needed

 

Witch-Hunt: Mysteries of the Salem Witch Trials

            Note (pp. x-xiv); Introduction (pp. 7-19); Prologue (pp. 23-39); Chapter II (pp.

57-67); Chapter III (pp. 80-88); Chapter V (p. 108); Chapter VI (pp. 132-139);

Epilogue (pp. 210-212, 214-215)

 

Venn Diagram Worksheet

 

The Lesson

 

Lesson-Starter

 

1. Ask students to brainstorm a list of good-luck charms (such as a horseshoe, lucky penny, four-leaf clover, or hand signals to ward off the “evil eye”) and bad-luck charms (black cat, broken mirror, the number “13.”) Expand the session to the “little sorceries” of sleepovers, such as “light as a feather, stiff as a board” or “Bloody Mary.”

2. Broaden discussion to ask how popular culture treats evil, good and witches. Film examples might include Disney’s Cinderella, Sleeping Beauty, Halloween Town, or Hocus Pocus; Carrie; The Wizard of Oz; Matilda; The Witches; Tolkien’s Lord of the Rings trilogy; The Witches of Eastwick; and the witches of the Harry Potter movies. Television series might include Bewitched; Charmed; Joan of Arcadia; Sabrina, the Teenage Witch, or Buffy, the Vampire Slayer. On stage the Stephen Sondheim musical Into the Woods also explores these issues as does, on the classical dramatic side, Shakespeare’s Macbeth and The Tempest.

3. Ask students to collect additional examples of cultural beliefs about good, evil, witchcraft and the interface between the seen world and unseen world. Subjects might include Haitian voodoo; Navajo skinwalkers; Aborigine Dream-Time; Hispanic pastorella plays; and the treatment of Santa Claus. Some students may wish to examine the original Brothers Grimm and Charles Perrault versions of fairy tales and folk tales which are usually more violent and explicit than the modern versions.

4. Have a class session for students to share their findings while completing the Venn diagram’s right side (Modern View) with information about the contemporary view of the seen and unseen world.

 

Procedures

 

1. Ask students to read about the Puritan’s view of witchcraft, good and evil in the world in Witch-Hunt. Remind them to record their key findings on the left side of the Venn diagram (Puritan View) regarding 17th century Puritan’s views of the seen and unseen world of good, evil, and witchcraft.

2. Direct students to compare the two sides of the Venn diagram to determine if there are points where the Puritan and modern views overlap. If they do, complete the central segment of the Venn diagram (Both Views).

 

Assessment

 

1. Direct students to write an opinion paper on whether they believe it was possible for Puritans to reconcile their religious conviction about the struggle between good and evil in the unseen and seen worlds with their Enlightenment capacity for reason and skepticism about “superstition.”

2. The position paper may be evaluated on a twenty-point scale (which may be multiplied by five to convert to 100-point scale or for conversion to letter grades) using the following rubric:


 

 

 

 

Excellent

 

Good

 

Fair

 

Not

Satisfactory

 

No

Work

Historical Comprehension

 

10 points

(10) Written assignment demonstrates excellent historical

·       analysis of information

·       command of facts

·       synthesis of information

·       interpretation

(9-8) Written assignment demonstrates good historical

·       analysis of information

·       command of facts

·       synthesis of information

·       interpretation

(7-6) Written assignment shows fair historical

·       analysis of information

·       command of facts

·       synthesis of information

·       interpretation

(5-1) Written assignment shows little historical

·       analysis of information

·       command of facts

·       synthesis of information

·      interpretation

0

Technical Writing Skills

 

10 points

(10) Written assignment shows excellent

·       compositional structure

·       sentence structure and variety

·       vocabulary use

·       grammar, spelling, punctuation

(9-8) Written assignment shows good

·       compositional structure

·       sentence structure and variety

·       vocabulary use

·       grammar, spelling, punctuation

(7-6) Written assignment shows adequate

·       compositional structure

·       sentence structure and variety

·       vocabulary use

·       grammar, spelling, punctuation

(5-1) Written assignment shows inadequate

·       compositional structure

·       sentence structure and variety

·       vocabulary use

·       grammar, spelling, punctuation

0

 

 

 

Additional Resources

 

Books

 

Bettelheim, Bruno. The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales. (New York: Vintage Books, 1976; reissued 1989).

 

Bettleheim examines the role of fairy tales in preparing children for adult reality.

 

Hall, David D. Worlds of Wonder, Days of Judgment: Popular Religious Belief in Early New England. (New York: Knopf, 1989).

Hall explores how devout Puritans, such as Judge Samuel Sewall, also harbored folk beliefs.

Hillerman, Tony. Skinwalkers. (New York: Harper & Row, 1986).

 

Beginning with The Blessing Way in 1970, Tony Hillerman has woven suspense

with a compelling, if non-academic, depiction of Navajo culture in over two

dozen murder mysteries. He provides a friendly introduction to the Navajo

world-view for students. In 2002, Skinwalkers was also produced as a two-hour

film for the PBS series, Mystery!

 

Thomas, Keith. Religion and the Decline of Magic. (Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1971).

 

Thomas examined the persistence of folk beliefs, the shifting definition of

unacceptable magic, and the interplay between community and outsiders in the

outbreak of witch-hunts.

 

Internet Resources

 

WebMuseum, Paris: Famous Artworks Exhibition, Artist Index (Hieronymus Bosch, William Blake)

http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/blake/

http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/bosch/

 

The Artchive: Salvador Dali

http://www.artchive.com/artchive/D/dali.html

 

Interdisciplinary Activities

 

English – Shakespeare not only features witches and specters in Macbeth, but examines the interplay between the seen and unseen worlds. Ask students to describe how good and evil struggle in the seen and unseen world in one of the following works: Macbeth, Hamlet, A Midsummer Night’s Dream, or The Tempest.

 

Music – Good, evil, witchcraft and magic have inspired composers from Mozart (The Magic Flute and Don Giovanni) to Wagner (The Ring of the Nibelung or Ring Cycle), and Tchaikovsky (Sleeping Beauty) to Rodgers and Hammerstein (Cinderella); Sondheim (Into the Woods), Wasserman, Darion and Leigh (Man of La Mancha), and Bricusse and Wildhorn (Jekyll and Hyde). Select a composition and explain the devices the composer uses to express the struggle between good and evil and the seen and unseen world in their music.

 

Art – The visual arts are filled with expressions of the struggle between good and evil, devils and angels. Hieronymus Bosch, William Blake, and Salvador Dali produced artworks that are treasure troves of symbolism. Either ask students to fully investigate the symbolism of Bosch’s Temptation of St. Anthony or to create a computerized slide show, poster, or project board of 25 images by artists across the breadth of art history that address the struggle in the seen and unseen world between good and evil. Students should caption the artwork with title, artist, date (if known), and an explanation of the rationale behind their selection of the piece.

Puritan and Modern Views of the Seen and Unseen World

VI. How does the historian’s work differ from the dramatist’s work in writing about the Salem Witch Trials?

 

Synopsis

 

Witch-Hunt virtually begins with the caution, “we must be careful with evidence” and ends with the statement, “History is a mirror, fiction a portrait.” The legitimate problems of working with early primary sources combined with careless recycling of false stories has produced much confusion about the events which happened in Salem in 1692. Furthermore, Arthur Miller’s drama of the Salem witch trials, The Crucible, is often treated as an historical account of the lives of the people of Salem and the witch trials rather than a compelling piece of fiction. In this lesson, students will examine the historian’s craft and the dramatist’s art and determine how they are different. The lesson is designed for students in high school, grades 9-12.

 

National Curriculum Standards

 

Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning has created standards and benchmarks for language arts, math, science, geography, economics, and history.

This lesson meets Level IV (Grades 9-12) standards and benchmarks for:

United States History Standards (3rd Ed.) for Era 2 – Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763) including benchmark:

3. Understands characteristics of religious development in colonial America (e.g., the presence of diverse religious groups and their contributions to religious freedom; the political and religious influence of the Great Awakening; the major tenets of Puritanism and its legacy in American society; the dissension of Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams, and Puritan objections to their ideas and behavior)

 

Historical Understanding (3rd Ed.) Standard 2: Understands the historical perspective including benchmarks:

1. Analyzes the values held by specific people who influenced history and the role their values played in influencing history

10. Analyzes how specific historical events would be interpreted differently based on newly uncovered records and/or information

11. Knows how to perceive past events with historical empathy

12. Knows how to evaluate the credibility and authenticity of historical sources

13. Evaluates the validity and credibility of different historical interpretations

 

Language Arts (4th Ed.)

Standard 6: Uses skills and strategies to understand and interpret a variety of literary texts including benchmark:

8. Understands relationships between literature and its historical period, culture, and society (e.g., influence of historical context on form, style, and point of view; influence of literature on political events; social influences on author’s description of characters, plot, and setting; how writers represent and reveal their cultural traditions)

Standard 10: Understands the characteristics and components of the media including benchmarks:

2. Understands how different media (e.g., documentaries, current affairs programs, web pages) are structured to present a particular subject or point of view

10. Understands the influence of media on society as a whole (e.g., influence in shaping various governmental, social, and cultural norms; influence on the democratic process; influence on beliefs, lifestyles, and understanding of relationships and culture; how it shapes viewer’s perceptions of reality; the various consequences in society of ideas and images in media)

 

Time Required

 

This lesson will likely take two class periods, depending on the amount of outside research assigned.

 

Materials Needed

 

Witch-Hunt: Mysteries of the Salem Witch Trials

            A Note About the Images in This Book, p. xiv

            On Spelling, Word Usage and Dates in This Book, pp. xv-xvi

            Martha Carrier’s examination of May 31, 1692, pp. 3-6

            Mary Easty’s petition, p. 174

            Slave inventories from Barbados listing a slave, Tattuba, pp. 64-65

            Poppets, p. 34

            Pins, p. 110

            1681 Images of Flying Spirits, p. 36

            1621 Image of Witch and Familiars, p. 85

            Cotton Mather portrait, p. 24

            Increase Mather portrait, p. 182

            Samuel Parris portrait, p. 53

            William Stoughton and Samuel Sewall portrait, p. 131

            Presumed Proctor home, p. 166

            Broadway production sketches for The Crucible, p. 221

            Epilogue, pp. 209-219

            Appendix—The Crucible, Witch-Hunt, and Religion: Crossing Points of Many

Histories, pp. 221-228

 

The Crucible, by Arthur Miller

 

The Lesson

 

Lesson-Starter

1. Assign students the following speaking roles and also non-speaking/improvisational-action roles from the transcript of the examination of Martha Carrier, pp. 3-6: Judge, Abigail Williams, Elizabeth Hubbard, Susannah Sheldon, Ann Putnam Jr., Mary Warren, Mary Walcott, Mercy Lewis, and Martha Carrier. After the students have had a chance to read and prepare, ask them to perform a dramatic reading of this court document.

2. Assign students the following speaking roles from Act III of The Crucible, Hathorne’s Voice and Martha Corey’s Voice, and then have them perform a dramatic reading of the lines of the judge and the accused, stopping when Giles’ Voice roars, interrupting the court’s proceedings.

3. Ask students how the selection from the actual trial transcript compare to the selection from Arthur Miller’s drama

·      Who created each written document?

·      What is the intended audience for each?

·      When was each written?

·      What is the purpose of each of these writings?

 

Procedures

 

1. Direct students to read the Notes on images, spelling word usage and dates (pp. xiv-xvi) and then look at each of the following colonial sources:

      Tattuba slave inventory, p. 64 or 65

      Mary Easty petition, p. 174

      Image of a witch and familiars, p. 85

      Poppets, p. 34 or Pins, p. 110

2. You may wish to direct the students examination of the colonial materials using or adapting worksheets from the National Archives’ Digital Classroom at http://www.archives.gov/digitalÞclassroom/lessons/analysisÞworksheets/worksheets.html, including the Written Document Analysis for the inventory and petition,

      adapting the Photograph Analysis for the image of the witch and familiars, and the Artifact Analysis for the poppets or pins. If not, ask students to look closely at each item and answer the following questions:

·      What kind of source is this?

·      Is this a primary or secondary source?

·      What distinctive features does it have and what is it made of?

·      Who created it? Why?

·      Can we tell when was it created? If so, when?

·      Who was it intended to be used by?

·      Why is it a primary source?

·      Is there any bias or point-of-view in this source?

·      Does this source leave unanswered questions or create any confusion?

·      What useful information does it contain?

·      What does this source provide that might be lacking in your textbook?

3. Ask students to read the Epilogue, pp. 209-219, and to answer the following questions:

a. Why are there do so few documents, either written or visual, survive from the 17th century? Consider how many were created in the first place, the physical perils of fire and storm, and the intentional destruction of surplus (or embarrassing) paperwork. What impact does this have on a historian?

b. How do legibility, changes in calendar dates, archaic wording or spelling, and physical deterioration impact the ability of a historian to work with an individual document?

c. How does the passage of time (for example Hale writing five years after the trials instead of immediately afterwards) impact the reliability of documents? How does access to events (visibility, audibility, being able to witness some events but not others) impact on the reliability of a witness? How does point of view, bias or self-interest impact the reliability of documents?

d. Is a primary (17th century) document necessarily more reliable than a later history? How can historians determine what documents are reliable?

e. Can an historian be objective when writing a history? How can historians minimize their own cultural point-of-view to produce an honest history?

4. Direct students to read the Appendix, pp. 221-228 in conjunction with reading The Crucible, focusing on Act III. Students may wish to examine the errors mentioned in the text at the new web address: http://www.17thc.us/docs/fact-fiction.shtml

5. Ask students to answer the following questions:

a. Demonstrate why Arthur Miller’s characters are inventions and not historical figures.

b. Explain how Arthur Miller’s word choice during the trial is his invention and not a historical re-enactment.

c. Provide examples of how Arthur Miller infuses symbolism into his drama which was not part of the historic trials.

d. How does Arthur Miller use tone and setting to make the world he has invented come alive?

e. Can a dramatist capture life as it is? How can dramatists express truth when writing through the lens of their own experiences?

 

Assessment

 

1. Based on what the students have learned about the actual witch trial records and The Crucible, ask students to write an essay reacting to the statement, “History is a mirror, fiction a portrait,” comparing and contrasting the historian’s and dramatist’s disciplines.

 

2. The essay can be graded on a twenty-point scale (which may be multiplied by five to convert to 100-point scale or for conversion to letter grades) using the following rubric:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Excellent

 

Good

 

Fair

 

Not

Satisfactory

 

No

Work

Historical Comprehension

 

10 points

(10) Written assignment demonstrates excellent historical

·       analysis of information from both genres of writing

·       command of facts

·       comparison and contrast of details

·       assessment of drama as portrait and history as a mirror

(9-8) Written assignment demonstrates good historical

·       analysis of information from both genres of writing

·       command of facts

·       general comparison and contrasts

·      assessment of drama as a portrait and history as a mirror

(7-6) Written assignment shows fair historical

·       analysis of information from both genres

·       command of facts

·       little relationship between items compared or contrasted

·      incomplete assessment of drama as portrait and history as a mirror

(5-1) Written assignment shows little historical

·       analysis of information, may only refer to one genre

·       command of facts

·       no relationship between items to be compared and contrasted

·      no assessment of drama or history

0

Technical Writing Skills

 

10 points

(10) Written assignment shows excellent

·       compositional structure

·       sentence structure and variety

·       vocabulary use

·       grammar, spelling, punctuation

(9-8) Written assignment shows good

·       compositional structure

·       sentence structure and variety

·       vocabulary use

·       grammar, spelling, punctuation

(7-6) Written assignment shows adequate

·       compositional structure

·       sentence structure and variety

·       vocabulary use

·       grammar, spelling, punctuation

(5-1) Written assignment shows inadequate

·       compositional structure

·       sentence structure and variety

·       vocabulary use

·       grammar, spelling, punctuation

0

 

Additional Resources

 

Books

 

Miller, Arthur. Timebends. (New York: Grove Press, 1989).

 

Miller, Arthur. The Crucible. (New York: Viking Press, 1953).

 

Video

 

In 1993, CBS News produced in VHS format Edward R. Murrow, The Best of See it Now, 1951-1958, with Mike Wallace. This includes portions from the March 9, 1954 program on Joseph McCarthy and gives students the opportunity to look at the film editing techniques used by Murrow to shape the audience’s perception of McCarthy.

 

In 2003, PBS broadcast a two-hour documentary Arthur Miller, Elia Kazan, and the Blacklist: None Without Sin as part of its American Masters series. This show allows students to trace the relationship between the two men before, during, and after the communist witch-hunt and how their experiences with the HUAC were expressed in Miller’s The Crucible and Kazan’s On the Waterfront.

 

Internet Resources

 

Arthur Miller’s The Crucible: Fact & Fiction (Or Picky, Picky, Picky…) by Margo Burns

http://www.17thc.us/docs/fact-fiction.shtml

 

Digital Classroom of the National Archives, Exchange of Telegrams between Senator McCarthy and President Truman

http://www.archives.gov/digitalÞclassroom/lessons/mccarthyÞtelegram/mccarthyÞtelegram.html

 

Edward R. Murrow: Broadcasting History (includes audio file of Commentary on Senator Joseph McCarthy, CBS-TV’s ‘See it Now,’ March 9, 1954)

http://www.npr.org/features/feature.php?wfId=1872668

 

Edward R. Murrow, See it Now (CBS-TV, March 9, 1954), program transcript

http://honors.umd.edu/HONR269J/archive/Murrow540309.html

 

History Matters – “Have You No Sense of Decency”: The Army-McCarthy Hearings, transcript of the committee proceedings on June 9, 1954

http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6444/

 

McCarthy-Welch Exchange: “Have You No Sense of Decency), MP3 audio file

http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/welch-mccarthy.html

 

Salem Witch Trials Documentary Archive and Transcription Project

http://etext.virginia.edu/salem/witchcraft/

 

The Army-McCarthy Hearings

http://www.museum.tv/archives/etv/A/htmlA/army-mccarthy/army-mccarthy.htm

 

Why I Wrote The Crucible: An Artist’s Answer to Politics, by Arthur Miller

http://warren.dusd.net/~dstone/Resources/11P/MÞNY.htm

 

 

 

Interdisciplinary Activities

 

Art – Create set designs for The Crucible and then compare yours to the illustrations from the first performance of The Crucible shown in Witch-Hunt (p. 221) considering how each set uses design and space to echo the beliefs of their era; or create an historically accurate illustration of an incident from the Salem Witch Trials; or compare and contrast the five etched portraits of Puritan leaders in Witch-Hunt and identify what they have in common, what distinct elements emerge, and what message the artist intended the images to convey about the subjects.

 

Government – Create a flow chart of the criminal and judicial process followed by the Puritans during the Salem Witch Trials, labeling each with the official’s or court’s name, description of the authority’s power and legal procedures. Trace the process from the time an accused witch was brought in for a pre-trial hearing to the execution of sentence or pardon. Next, create a flow chart for a person accused of a felony crime today and compare and contrast the two.

 

Media and Film Studies – Investigate the conduct of the McCarthy hearings in the U.S. Senate. If possible either listen to or watch the segment from the Army McCarthy hearings when attorney Joseph Welch, much like Mary Easty, confronted the power of the accusers on live television. Or, you may wish to look early television journalist Edward R. Murrow’s program, See it Now, about Joseph McCarthy. With its powerfully edited script and visuals, it also serves as a documentary bridge between the raw primary source of the televised hearings and Arthur Miller’s The Crucible. Either the Army-McCarthy or Murrow segments will provide valuable insight into McCarthy’s technique and impact.

OR

Examine the 1996 film version of The Crucible with screenplay written by Arthur Miller starring Daniel Day Lewis and Winona Ryder, comparing and contrasting the original play, the movie, and/or the historical record with each other.